MIT’s cyborg plant can drive itself into the light
They may seem pretty boring and simple from our point of view, but plants are incredibly complex organisms that sense and react to their surroundings. They’ve been known to use animal-learning techniques to grow towards light, and human-like decision making when figuring out when to sprout. Their normal methods of getting around are pretty slow, so to give them a helping hand researchers at MIT Media Lab have now created “cyborg plants” that can control a robot base to drive themselves where they want to go.
The researchers call their cybernetic plant “Elowan,” and at a glance it looks like a pot plant with some wheels attached. But this isn’t just a robot that’s programmed to seek out light because that’s what plants like – the plant itself is actually in control.
Essentially, plants are already natural electronic systems. Through leaves and other organs, they sense changes in light, temperature, touch, wounds, pressure and other input from their environment. They then respond to these stimuli by sending electrical signals through their bodies.
The MIT Media Lab taps into these signals with electrodes inserted into the plant’s stems and leaves. They’re naturally fairly weak, so the signals are amplified before passing to the robot, which then moves according to the plant’s “wishes.”
In their experiments the researchers placed Elowan in between two lamps and, sure enough, when they switch one on, the robot rolls towards it. This kind of setup could help make for healthier house plants that can move around in search of sunlight or water, or move themselves out of harm’s way if they get too hot.
Making cybernetic plants could also help streamline the process of building robots and sensors – after all, if nature has already perfected a system that can sense and react to sunlight, why bother starting from scratch? So far, scientists have been able to turn flowers into touch controllers for a computer and spinach leaves into explosives detectors.
The team says that Elowan, which can be seen in action in the video below, is just one in a series of Cyborg Botany experiments.
Source: MIT Media Lab
(For the balance of this article, plus a video, and an audio version, please visit: https://newatlas.com/mit-cyborg-plant-elowan/57541/)
Wombat poo has mystified scientists for years. The shy Australian marsupial is unique for being the only animal in the world to produce cubic poo. A team of researchers has finally uncovered exactly how this quiet animal produces its square feces, and the discovery could lead to novel manufacturing techniques.
Poo comes in a variety of shapes, however the cubed dung of wombats is unique in the animal kingdom. Scientists have long wondered how this freakish feces is created. We can say for sure it is not because the animal’s have square anuses, but apart from that this has remained quite the odd biological mystery.
“The first thing that drove me to this is that I have never seen anything this weird in biology. That was a mystery,” says Patricia Yang, a mechanical engineer from Georgia Institute of Technology, who became fascinated with how this oddly-shaped poop was created. “I didn’t even believe it was true at the beginning. I Googled it and saw a lot about cube-shaped wombat poop, but I was skeptical.”
Yang and colleagues joined forces with an Australian biologist from the University of Tasmania to try and solve this mystery. The researchers obtained two dissected intestinal tracks from wombats that had been euthanized after suffering injuries from motor vehicle accidents.
Wombats have an extraordinarily slow digestive process. It can take anywhere from eight to eighteen days for food to completely pass through its very long digestive system, however the new research revealed that the cubic shape of its dung isn’t formed until it reaches the final parts of the intestine. The feces stays in a relatively liquid state until it reaches the final 8 percent of the intestine where it begins to shape into small cubes.
“This shape change was due to the azimuthally varying elastic properties of the intestinal wall,” the researchers write in an abstract, recently presented at the Annual Meeting of the APS [American Physical Society] Division of Fluid Dynamics. “By emptying the intestine and inflating it with a long balloon, we found that the local strain varies from 20 percent at the cube’s corners to 75 percent at its edges. Thus, the intestine stretches preferentially at the walls to facilitate cube formation.”
Of course it isn’t unreasonable to be wondering why these animals evolved such a sophisticated way to produce cubed poo, when no other animal in the world found the need to do the same. Wombats have notoriously bad eyesight, so they communicate using scent markings. The animal’s poo frequently acts as territorial markers letting other wombats know who runs a given burrow.
It is hypothesized that because of the importance of poo as a communicative tool, the animal evolved the cube-shaped excretion as a way to efficiently pile up structures of droppings. After all, you couldn’t exactly build a large pile out of round droppings as effectively as you could if it were square blocks.
The new research is not just an academic scat investigation either, it may also render quite the pragmatic outcome. Yang suggests that this method could be applied to our current manufacturing processes.
“We currently have only two methods to manufacture cubes: We mold it, or we cut it. Now we have this third method,” says Yang. “It would be a cool method to apply to the manufacturing process — how to make a cube with soft tissue instead of just molding it.”
The new research was presented at the 71st Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics.
(For the source of this, and other equally interesting articles, please visit: https://newatlas.com/wombat-square-poo-study/57289/)
For years, scientists have suspected that drinking coffee helps lessen the chances of getting Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. A new study indicates that this may indeed be the case, and that the darker the roast, the better it works.
Led by Dr. Donald Weaver, scientists at Canada’s Krembil Brain Institute compared three types of Starbucks 100-percent Arabica instant coffee – light roast, dark roast, and decaffeinated dark roast.
In in vitro (glass dish) tests, it was found that the two dark roasts were both particularly effective at keeping the protein fragments beta amyloid and tau from clumping. The clumping of these fragments within the brain is believed to be a key cause of both Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.
Of all the compounds that were analyzed in the coffees tested, there was only one – a group known as phenylindanes – that had the anti-clumping effect. The longer a coffee is roasted, the greater the amount of phenylindanes it contains, thus the more potent the effect is. Interestingly, the caffeinated and decaffeinated dark roasts were equally potent, indicating that caffeine content is irrelevant (that said, a study recently conducted at Indiana University Bloomington suggests that caffeine is effective at warding off dementia).
“It’s the first time anybody’s investigated how phenylindanes interact with the proteins that are responsible for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s,” says Dr. Ross Mancini, who (along with biologist Yanfei Wang) assisted Weaver in the research. “The next step would be to investigate how beneficial these compounds are, and whether they have the ability to enter the bloodstream, or cross the blood-brain barrier.”
(For the balance of this article please visit: https://newatlas.com/dark-coffee-alzheimers-parkinsons/57112/)
Earlier this year iconic British electronic music group Massive Attack revealed it was storing its classic album Mezzanine in DNA molecules. Now, it has been announced the synthetic DNA will be available in a limited release of spray paint cans, with each spray can estimated to contain around one million copies of the album.
For the last few years scientists have been exploring ways to harness the immense storage capacity of DNA. In 2012 a Harvard professor demonstrated the process by encoding a book into DNA, resulting in the equivalent of 70 billion HTML copies of the text being transferred into around one gram of DNA.
More recently, a team from ETH Zurich developed a process that encapsulates the synthetic DNA in 150-nanometer silica spheres, protecting the DNA from environmental degradation. In April of this year the ETH Zurich team took on the challenge of encoding Massive Attack’s classic album Mezzanine using this technique.
“This digital bitstream of the album (0s and 1s) was first translated to 901’065 DNA sequences (A, C, T and Gs), each 105 characters long,” says ETH Zurich’s Robert Grass, explaining the encoding process. “The 901’065 individual sequences were then chemically synthesized resulting in a synthetic DNA sample, which fully represents the digital bitstream of the album.”
After encapsulating the DNA in tiny synthetic glass beads they were added to spray paint. As well as producing a limited number of DNA-encoded spray cans, the DNA paint will be used to produce a small number of ink-jet printed artworks.
“We ensured that every spray can contains at least 0.1 micrograms of the synthetic DNA, which is equivalent to 1 million copies of the album,” says Grass. “This is only possible due to the immense data capacity of DNA (about 100 exabytes per gram).”
At this stage it’s unclear exactly how much one of these data-laden cans of spray paint will cost, but the band suggests a limited number will be produced and shipped by the end of the year. Founding member of the band Robert Del Naja, also a graffiti artist, amusingly says the unique characteristics of the DNA spray paint will not exactly be broadly adopted by street artists.
“It’s an interesting way to vandalize your back catalogue,” says Del Naja, “although DNA-encoded spray paint is unlikely to be adopted by street artists seeking anonymity.”
Source: Massive Attack Facebook
(For the source of this, and other interesting articles, please visit: https://newatlas.com/massive-attack-dna-spray-paint/56881/)
It is Barcelona’s most visited landmark, but after 136 years of unlicensed construction the law has finally caught up with La Sagrada Familia. The church’s trustees have now reached an agreement with the city of Barcelona that involves €36 million (US$41 million) in payments, with the church’s first official building permit coming back the other way.
Architectural icon Antoni Gaudí [Anton Placid Guillem Gaudí y Cornet] spent more than 40 years designing La Sagrada Familia, and the cornerstone of the temple was laid in 1882. Now, 136 years later, there is still around 30 percent of the basilica’s construction to be completed.
But that hasn’t stopped some 20 million visitors swinging by Gaudí’s masterpiece every year, 4.5 million of whom actually enter the temple. This, along with other tourist attractions around Barcelona, has placed a massive strain on the city’s infrastructure, so the council is planning some upgrades.
Architectural icon Antoni Gaudí spent more than 40 years designing La Sagrada Familia
The agreement will see a range of investments designed to accommodate the growing hordes of tourists, which have actually been met with some prickly resistance from locals.
Twenty-two-million euros (US$25m) will go towards new public transport services, while €7m (US$8m) will go towards improving access between the church and the metro, including the possibility of a direct terminal. Meanwhile, €4m (US$4.5 m) will be invested in redeveloping the streets of the Sardenya, Provença, La Marina and Mallorca, while €3m (US$3.4m) will go towards maintaining and cleaning the city, along with employment of security and civic agents.
In return, the board finally gains the official permit needed to construct the church, which it hopes to be complete in 2026, the centenary of Gaudí’s death. The agreement also states that the current visitor limit cannot be increased until then.
Source: City of Barcelona
(For the source of this article, and to see additional photos, please visit: https://newatlas.com/la-sagrada-familia-building-permit/56929/)
The Giant Marionettes of Royal de Luxe
Based in Nantes, France, the street theater company Royal de Luxe performs around the world, primarily using gigantic, elaborate marionettes to tell stories that take place over several days and wind through entire cities. Puppeteers maneuver the huge marionettes — some as tall as 12 meters (40 ft) — through streets, parks, and waterways, performing their story along the way. Gathered here are images of several recent Royal de Luxe performances, from Belgium, México, Germany, Chile, and England.
By Ben Hooper –
Hardy, a beagle employed by Customs inspectors at Atlanta’s Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport, poses with the pig head he sniffed out in the checked luggage of a traveler arriving from Ecuador. Photo by U.S. Customs and Border Protection.
Oct. 16 (UPI) — Customs officials at Atlanta’s Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport said a K-9 beagle sniffed out a roasted pig head in a traveler’s luggage.
U.S. Customs and Border Protection said Hardy, a CBP Agriculture Detector and member of the agency’s “Beagle Brigade,” alerted officials to the presence of the pig head in the checked baggage of a traveler arriving from Ecuador.
The nearly 2-pound pig head was destroyed by authorities.
“Our best defense against destructive pests and animal diseases is to prevent the entry of prohibited agriculture products from entering the United States,” said Carey Davis, CBP area port director for the Port of Atlanta. “This seizure at ATL illustrate the tremendous expertise of our four-legged K-9 partners in protecting the United States.”
Customs said pork products are banned from being transported to the United States from other continents as they could carry animal diseases including Foot and Mouth Disease, Classical Swine Fever and Swine Vesicular Disease.
(For the balance of this article please visit: https://www.upi.com/Odd_News/2018/10/16/Customs-beagle-sniffs-out-pig-head-in-luggage/1001539703224/)
Women whose left index and ring fingers are different lengths are more likely to be lesbians, a study suggests. Getty Images.
Scientists measured the fingers of 18 pairs of female identical twins, where one was straight and the other gay.
On average, the lesbians, but not the straight twins, had different sized index and ring fingers, typically a male trait, but only on the left hand.
This may be the result of exposure to more testosterone in the womb, the University of Essex researchers said.
The scientists also measured the fingers of 14 pairs of male identical twins, where one was straight and the other gay, but found no link.
Both men and women were exposed to the “male” hormone, testosterone, in the womb – but some may be exposed more than others, the scientists said.
Study author Dr Tuesday Watts, from the psychology department at Essex University, said: “Because identical twins, who share 100% of their genes, can differ in their sexual orientations, factors other than genetics must account for the differences.
“Research suggests that our sexuality is determined in the womb and is dependent on the amount of male hormone we are exposed to or the way our individual bodies react to that hormone, with those exposed to higher levels of testosterone being more likely to be bisexual or homosexual.
“Because of the link between hormone levels and difference in finger lengths, looking at someone’s hands could provide a clue to their sexuality.”
(For the balance of this article please see: https://www.bbc.com/news/health-45887691/)
Not content with mastering parkour, Boston Dynamics is putting one of its advanced robots to “work” for the first time. In a YouTube video released by the company, the latest version of its Spot quadruped robot starts its new job demonstrating its ability to carry out on-the-spot inspections of building sites in Japan.
The way that Boston Dynamics’ robots have evolved has been both intriguing and slightly alarming. Last week, the company’s bipedal Atlas showed off its gymnastic abilities and now Spot is hitting the construction sites. A descendant of the BigDog and Wildcat robots, the electrically-powered Spot is much smaller and sleeker than its predecessors, with a streamlined design that allows it to handle human environments.
The video shows two versions of Spot working at the Takenaka Corporation and Fujita Corporation building sites in Japan. At the former, the robot was equipped with the disturbing arm/neck featured on previous Boston Dynamics robots. This one seemed to be equipped with a camera or some other sensor protected by a clamshell hand/mouth for closer inspections of features. The latter had no arms, but carried a glowing plastic box on its back. On the tail of each is what looks like a complex cone in a protective cage that seems to be some sort of navigation apparatus.
The video shows the robot strutting around the sites like a determined dog, stopping occasionally to inspect installations. Because Spot is equipped with sensors fore and aft, it negotiated stairwells and narrow corridors by simply reversing when there wasn’t room to turn around.
Though the company, as usual, is light on details, construction sites seem a logical place for such testing and demonstrations, playing into a robots strengths but still providing ample opportunity to show off the its ability to adapt to challenging environments and new situations.
The company says that the Spot robot will be available in the second half of next year for a variety of applications.
Source: Boston Dynamics
(For the balance of this article, plus a video, please visit: https://newatlas.com/boston-dynamics-spot-robot-inspections/56758/)
It’s too fast and powerful to be an e-bike, but so underpowered that you’d hardly call it a motorcycle. Sol Motors claims this bizarre looking “no-ped” represents a new category that’s emerging in urban transport, and that might be the right way to look at it.
The Pocket Rocket is a wacky looking electric contraption out of Stuttgart, Germany. Its “tank” is a single fat tube with a headlight at one end, a battery in the middle and a red ring of tail-light at the back that kind of does make it look a bit like you’re sitting on a saddled-up missile, Wiley E. Coyote style.
The rest of the triangular frame is simply a bent piece of metal pipe, with the simplest of twin-shock swingarms supporting the hub-driven rear wheel and a nifty design at the front that pokes the steering head straight through the main tube and gives you a short-travel front end suspension underneath.
There are two versions available – one rocks a 6-hp (4.5-kW) hub motor capable of 50 km/h (31 mph), and the other flexes on you with a mighty 8.5 hp (6.3 kW), and is capable of 80 km/h (50 mph). It weighs a friendly 55 kg (121 lb), and travels somewhere between 50-80 km (30-50 mi) on a charge, meaning it’ll comfortably hit the commuting sweet spot for the majority of people.
With up to 150 Nm (110 lb-ft) of torque, this darling thing can even hoik up a wheelie, provided you put it in the designated Wheelie mode. Mind you, leaning back with a large metal tube poking out from your crotch and rising up does make Pocket Rocket wheelies look like something a ninth-grader would draw on a classmate’s yearbook.
Other mode choices are Eco and Sport. Beyond that, it’s simplicity itself, with rude metal pegs jutting out as your footrests, a pair of brake levers on the bars and a slot to stick your smartphone in if you want a dash.
As a low-cost, zero-emission urban transport option, it’d rock the job if you can handle that minimalist style. But there’s a problem here: even the lower 6-horse version equates to nearly 4,500 watts, which is several times more power than you’re allowed on an e-bike more or less anywhere that’s got regulations. So you’re going to pay motorcycle-level registration fees on this thing, and need a license to ride it.
(For the balance of this article, plus several photos, please visit: https://newatlas.com/sol-motors-pocket-rocket/56685/)
After notching up eight generations of prototype electric three-wheelers, Arcimoto has followed a 15 model Beta Series by kicking off the manufacture of 25 Pilot Series Fun Utility Vehicles ahead of retail series production by the end of 2018.
Arcimoto began designing and building prototypes for a new “affordable, joyful, pure electric vehicle for everyday drivers and fleets” in 2007. The first was a bright yellow open air single-seater with a configurable rear section. Next, the designers added partial weather protection for the driver and then raided a Toyota Yaris for the bodywork of the Pulse in 2009.
Room for two came with project Darkwing, and everything that had come before was brought together for the first SRK in 2011. Optimization was the order of the day for Gen 6, while the prototype that followed refined the design for future production. And this brings us to Gen 8, the FUV that’s heading for retail launch later this year.
The motorcycle-class two-seater rocks a dual motor drive system that gets it from standstill to 60 mph (96.5 km/h) in 7.5 seconds, on its way to a top speed of 80 mph (129 km/h). Range on the base model will be about 70 miles (113 km) per charge of its 12 kWh Li-ion battery pack, with an extended range option also available for 130 miles per charge.
Arcimoto says that it’s aiming for a curb weight of 1,100 lb (500 kg) and that the “low center of gravity, lightweight platform, and anti-dive optimization make for an extremely agile and responsive ride.” The target starting price is US$11,900.
The first of 10 Signature Series FUVs was delivered to Hollywood actor Nathan Fillion in December 2017 after a debut at the LA Auto Show. Arcimoto has since built 15 beta vehicles – five will go to the company’s own rental location that’s due to open in Eugene, Oregon, in the next few months; five more are on their way to partner rental firm HulaCar in San Diego; and the remainder have been snapped up by a group of early customers.
The Pilot Series vehicles are currently being built in the company’s own manufacturing plant, and pre-orders for the retail FUV are open now, with $100 refundable deposit cementing interest. You can see the beta FUVs rolling out in the video below.
(For the source: Arcimoto and to see additional pictures and a video, please visit: https://newatlas.com/arcimoto-srk-pilot-series/56699/)
An eight-year-old found a pre-Viking-era sword while swimming in a lake in Sweden during the summer.
Saga Vanecek found the relic in the Vidostern lake while at her family’s holiday home in Jonkoping County.
The sword was initially reported to be 1,000 years old, but experts at the local museum now believe it may date to around 1,500 years ago.
“It’s not every day that you step on a sword in the lake!” Mikael Nordstrom from the museum said.
The level of the water was extremely low at the time, owing to a drought, which is probably why Saga uncovered the ancient weapon.
“I felt something in the water and lifted it up. Then there was a handle and I went to tell my dad that it looked like a sword,” Saga told the Sveriges Radio broadcaster.
Saga’s father Andy Vanecek told the English-language website The Local he initially thought his daughter had found an unusual stick or branch in the water.
It was only after he asked a friend to take a closer look did he discover that it was likely to be an ancient relic.
The local museum, where the sword is now being kept, said it was extremely well-preserved.
Saga’s discovery led the museum and local council to carry out further excavations at the site, finding a brooch from the 3rd Century.
The Jonkoping county museum said that its investigation of the lake is unfinished and it could yet turn up more ancient items.
(For additional interesting articles please visit: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-45753455/)
A new video from AIST, Japan’s National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, shows a prototype robot designed to work on construction sites in situations where there is a shortage of human workers. The robot in undeniably slow but also strikingly accurate, suggesting a future where humanoid robots could replace even more human jobs.
The prototype demonstration shows the robot, dubbed HRP-5P, picking up a piece of plaster board and screwing it into a wall. This kind of flexible humanoid robot is designed to be able to replicate human motions in complicated construction environments.
Industrial automation is rapidly changing the face of modern mass production. While large factory assembly lines are quickly becoming more and more robotic, human workers are still often necessary for many tasks. Aircraft assembly, for example, is one field that has resisted the kind of robotic assembly that has taken over the world of car production. This is because human workers are still needed to crawl and fit in different areas that larger fixed robotic systems simply cannot reach.
On-site construction is another field that similarly has resisted easy robotic automation, with human labor still primarily relied upon for the building of houses in situ. Automated brick-laying robots and massive robotic 3D-printers are certainly offering intriguing possibilities for the future of construction but ultimately we still need humans to hammer these buildings together.
This new Japanese research is less focused on removing the need for human workers but instead geared towards trying to deal with a problem unique to the island nation. Announcing the new robot, the researchers write: “Along with the declining birthrate and the aging of the population, it is expected that many industries such as the construction industry will fall into serious manual shortages in the future, and it is urgent to solve this problem by robot technology.”
HRP-5P is not by any means the most advanced robot we have ever seen (the backflipping Atlas from Boston Dynamics arguably shows off a greater dynamic range). However, by directly designing a robot that can carry out heavy manual labour using similar movements to a human, AIST is gesturing toward a future where even more granular construction work can be taken over by robots.
Source: AIST (Japanese language)
(For the source of this article, and to watch a video, please visit: https://newatlas.com/aist-construction-robot-humanoid-hrp-5p/56585/)
Miners in Australia discover ‘mother lode’
With just one blast, miners in Western Australia unearthed two large quartz rocks containing gold estimated to be worth about $11 million, bringing the cache to the surface over four days. Australian miners often extract just 2g of gold per ton of rock—an expert says the gold particles are often too small to be seen by the naked eye—but in this case, Canadian mining company RNC Minerals says 2,200g per ton was extracted, the BBC reports. “You might go your whole life and you’ll never see anything like it. It’s definitely a once-in-a-lifetime discovery,” a geologist tells Australia’s ABC News. The largest rocks will be auctioned as collector’s items, according to the RNC Minerals CEO.
The biggest one weighs between 200 and 210 pounds and contains more than 2,300 ounces of gold for a worth of about $3 million; the next biggest weighs 139 pounds and contains 1,600 ounces of gold for a worth of around $2 million. The miner credited with discovering the gold describes it as the “mother lode,” telling ABC he’s never before seen anything like it: “I nearly fell over looking at it.” The Beta Hunt mine, near Kalgoorlie, had primarily been a nickel mining operation, but RNC found traces of gold in June and then targeted the gold vein 1,600 feet underground; the gold was extracted from an area just 10 feet wide and 10 feet high. “This sort of bonanza zone is incredibly unique,” the geologist notes.
(For the balance of this, and other interesting articles, please visit: https://www.newser.com/story/264427/once-in-a-lifetime-11m-worth-of-gold-unearthed-in-just-one-blast.html/)
Canadian-based aviation firm Opener Inc. has unveiled its new BlackFly single-seater aircraft, which it bills as a Personal Aerial Vehicle (PAV) and the world’s first ultralight all-electric fixed-wing Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) aircraft. The fully-amphibious drop-shaped flyer with fore and aft wings sporting eight electric motors has a range of 25 mi (40 km) and a top speed of 62 mph (100 km/h).
According to Opener, the BlackFly is “designed and built for a new world of three-dimensional transportation.” Due to its limited capabilities, the company says that it is easy to operate and can be flown in the United States from small grassy areas without formal training or FAA licensing.
The BlackFly is the result of nine years of development with over 1,000 test flights and boasts triple modular redundancy for greater safety, as well as an optional ballistic parachute. The company claims that it charges in under 30 minutes, has a low-noise signature, is geo-fence capable, and even has an Automatic Return-to-Home button.
Opener says that though the present version is somewhat limited, it hopes that it will one day lead to rural/urban commuting networks powered by renewable energy sources.
“Opener is re-energizing the art of flight with a safe and affordable flying vehicle that can free its operators from the everyday restrictions of ground transportation,” says Marcus Leng, CEO. “We will offer competitive pricing in an endeavor to democratize three-dimensional personal transportation. Safety has been our primary driving goal in the development of this new technology. Opener will be introducing this innovation in a controlled and responsible manner. Even though not required by FAA regulations, BlackFly operators will be required to successfully complete the FAA Private Pilot written examination and also complete company-mandated vehicle familiarization and operator training.”
The BlackFly and other Opener vehicles will be on display at the 2018 EAA AirVenture Convention in Oshkosh, Wisconsin from July 23 to July 29, 2018.
The video below shows BlackFly taking to the skies.
(Source: Opener by way of New Atlas. Watch the video at: https://newatlas.com/blackfly-vtol-aircraft/55445/)
A weapon as legendary as the dagger of King Tutankhamun needs an epic backstory, and last year X-ray analysis showed that the iron in the ancient blade had come from meteorites. Now, a French study has found that the artifact was far from alone as all iron tools dating back to the Bronze Age have otherworldly origins.
Beginning around 3300 BCE in the Near East and parts of South Asia, the Bronze Age was categorized by the widespread use of bronze in weapons, tools and decorations. Made by smelting copper and mixing it with tin, arsenic or other metals, bronze was durable and relatively easy to come by, and as such it remained the top choice until it was supplanted when the Iron Age began some 2,000 years later.
That’s not to say that iron wasn’t used during the Bronze Age – on relatively rare occasions iron artifacts have been found dating back to before the Iron Age, but it was much harder to come by and work with. The trouble was, most of the metal was locked in ore and needed to be smelted at extremely high temperatures, which was beyond the technological capabilities of the time. So where did those early iron artifacts come from?
It’s long been thought that iron tools of the time were made from meteorites, which would have deposited the metal in an already-workable state on the Earth’s surface. The theory would explain the presence of iron in artifacts before the advanced smelting techniques had been developed, and whether or not their owners knew that the metal was not of this planet, iron would have been prized for its relative rarity.
To determine whether these early iron artifacts were of terrestrial or extraterrestrial origin, Albert Jambon from the the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) in France conducted chemical analyses of several Bronze Age samples. Along with King Tut’s dagger, Jambon studied a bracelet and headrest belonging to the Egyptian king in 1350 BCE, axes from Syria and China dating back to about 1400 BCE, a Syrian pendant from 2300 BCE, a Turkish dagger from 2500 BCE, and beads from Gerzeh, Egypt, which stretch right back to 3200 BCE, just after the Bronze Age began.
Jambon used a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, an instrument that can determine the elements that make up a sample of rock or metal without damaging the target. Using this, Jambon could tell from the iron’s impurities whether the metal in the relics came from meteorites or was naturally occurring on Earth. Iron meteorites usually contain higher levels of nickel and cobalt than Earthly iron due to the tendency for nickel to drift towards the molten core of a planet.
Sure enough, all of the tested samples had levels of nickel and cobalt that lined up with those seen in iron meteorites. Jambon concluded that essentially all iron items from the Bronze Age would therefore be made of meteoric iron, until the development of the smelting process that marked the beginning of the Iron Age from about 1200 BCE.
The research was published in the Journal of Archaeological Science.
(Source: CNRS by way of New Atlas. For this and other important articles please visit: https://newatlas.com/bronze-age-iron-tools-meteorites/52474/)
An energy weapon system built by Raytheon has clocked up an impressive score by taking out 45 drones during a recent US Army exercise. Part of this year’s Maneuver Fires Integrated Experiment (MFIX) at the Army’s Fires Center of Excellence at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, the test involved a directed energy weapon that combines Raytheon’s high-power microwave beam and High Energy Laser (HEL) systems.
Drones, UAVs, and even something as low-tech as mortars are a major battlefield hazard. With new technology producing increasingly sophisticated and expensive platforms, the danger is also emerging that these expensive assets could be overwhelmed by new advanced, but cheap, autonomous flying machines that swarm into battle and swamp defenses.
A promising way to combat this is by using directed energy weapons. These fire beams that travel at the speed of light, can flick from target to target in a fraction of a second, can be adapted to suit the target, and cost about a dollar a shot as opposed to thousands or even millions of dollars for more conventional rounds.
At MFIX, Raytheon’s approach was to combine a directed microwave beam operating from a fixed location with the HEL system installed on an Army dune buggy. The microwave weapon was designed to disrupt or destroy the target’s electronics while the laser directly destroyed the targets it engaged. The goal was to produce a system that can engage incoming hostile targets at medium range.
(For the balance of this article please visit: https://newatlas.com/microwave-laser-weapon-test/53891/)
A man in Wisconsin has turned snoozing into a charitable act.
Terry Lauerman, 75, goes to his local animal shelter in Green Bay every day and takes naps with its cats.
Though, that’s not quite his intention.
According to Elizabeth Feldhausen, the founder of Safe Haven Pet Sanctuary, Lauerman strolled into the shelter about six months ago with a simple dream and a cat brush in tow.
“He just walked in and started brushing,” Feldhausen told HuffPost on Thursday, noting that he never asked to be a volunteer. “So eventually we told him he was an official volunteer and had him fill out our volunteer form.”
Feldhausen said Lauerman visits the cage-free sanctuary — which rescues disabled cats that would be at risk of euthanasia at other facilities — daily and stays for about three hours.
After he grooms a cat for a bit, he typically dozes off.
“[He sleeps for] about an hour, then he’ll wake up and switch cats,” said Feldhausen.
Apparently, Lauerman really enjoys the unpaid gig a lot — especially the sprucing aspect of it.
“He said, [the brushing is] as great of an experience for him, as it is for them,” Feldhausen said.
Naturally, the volunteer with a habit of accidentally passing out charmed the staff at Safe Haven, and the group decided to dedicate a Facebook post to him on Tuesday.
“We are so lucky to have a human like Terry,” the shelter wrote, alongside a few photos of Lauerman cat napping with felines. “Terry just came along one day and introduced himself. He said he’d like to brush cats. Eventually, it became everyday. He brushes all of the cats, and can tell you about all of their likes and dislikes. He also accidentally falls asleep most days. We don’t mind – Cats need this! Terry is a wonderful volunteer.”
Ends up the staff at the shelter weren’t the only ones smitten by Lauerman. As of Thursday afternoon, the post has received over 1.6 million on Facebook. It also made its way over to Reddit, where it has received hundreds of comments.
And although Lauerman hopes his 15 minutes of fame leads to more donations to Safe Haven, he also wants to remind people that he’s not the only person dedicating his time to shelter.
Feldhausen said that Lauerman specifically praised another volunteer named Paula.
“Who is what he considers the cat grandma,” Feldhausen said. “He wants to make sure the people who do what he does every day get credit too.”
We all know eating “healthy” food is good for our physical health and can decrease our risk of developing diabetes, cancer, obesity and heart disease. What is not as well known is that eating healthy food is also good for our mental health and can decrease our risk of depression and anxiety.
Mental health disorders are increasing at an alarming rate and therapies and medications cost $US2.5 trillion dollars a year globally.
There is now evidence dietary changes can decrease the development of mental health issues and alleviate this growing burden. Australia’s clinical guidelines recommend addressing diet when treating depression.
Recently there have been major advances addressing the influence certain foods have on psychological well-being. Increasing these nutrients could not only increase personal well-being but could also decrease the cost of mental health issues all around the world.
1. Complex carbohydrates
One way to increase psychological well-being is by fuelling brain cells correctly through the carbohydrates in our food. Complex carbohydrates are sugars made up of large molecules contained within fibre and starch. They are found in fruit, vegetables, and wholegrains and are beneficial for brain health as they release glucose slowly into our system. This helps stabilise our mood.
Simple carbohydrates found in sugary snacks and drinks create sugar highs and lows that rapidly increase and decrease feelings of happiness and produce a negative effect on our psychological well-being.
We often use these types of sugary foods to comfort us when we’re feeling down. But this can create an addiction-like response in the brain, similar to illicit drugs that increase mood for the short term but have negative long-term effects.
Increasing intake of complex carbohydrates and decreasing sugary drinks and snacks could be the first step in increased happiness and well-being.
Oxidation is a normal process our cells carry out to function. Oxidation produces energy for our body and brain. Unfortunately, this process also creates oxidative stress and more of this happens in the brain than any other part of the body.
Chemicals that promote happiness in the brain such as dopamine and serotonin are reduced due to oxidation and this can contribute to a decrease in mental health. Antioxidants found in brightly coloured foods such as fruit and vegetables act as a defence against oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain and body.
Antioxidants also repair oxidative damage and scavenge free radicals that cause cell damage in the brain. Eating more antioxidant-rich foods can increase the feel-good chemicals in our brain and heighten mood.
3. Omega 3
Omega 3 are polyunsaturated fatty acids that are involved in the process of converting food into energy. They are important for the health of the brain and the communication of its feel-good chemicals dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine.
Omega 3 fatty acids are commonly found in oily fish, nuts, seeds, leafy vegetables, eggs, and in grass fed meats. Omega 3 has been found to increase brain functioning, can slow down the progression of dementia and may improve symptoms of depression.
Omega 3 are essential nutrients that are not readily produced by the body and can only be found in the foods we eat, so it’s imperative we include more foods high in omega 3 in our everyday diet.
4. B vitamins
B vitamins play a large role in the production of our brain’s happiness chemicals serotonin and dopamine and can be found in green vegetables, beans, bananas, and beetroot. High amounts of vitamins B6, B12, and folate in the diet have been known to protect against depression and too low amounts to increase the severity of symptoms.
Vitamin B deficiency can result in a reduced production of happiness chemicals in our brain and can lead to the onset of low mood that could lead to mental health issues over a long period. Increasing B vitamins in our diet could increase the production of the feel good chemicals in our brain which promote happiness and well-being.
5. Prebiotics and probiotics
The trillions of good and bad bacteria living in our tummies also influence our mood, behaviour and brain health. Chemical messengers produced in our stomach influence our emotions, appetite and our reactions to stressful situations.
Prebiotics and probiotics found in yoghurt, cheese and fermented foods such as kombucha, sauerkraut and kimchi work on the same pathways in the brain as antidepressant medications and studies have found they might have similar effects.
Incorporating these foods into our diet will not only increase our physical health but will have beneficial effects on our mental health, including reducing our risk of disorders such as depression and anxiety.
(For the source of this article, and a video, please visit: https://bigthink.com/the-conversation/five-foods-that-increase-your-psychological-well-being/)
Recently, Irish fishermen pulled up the skull and horns of an extinct great elk, which could have 12-foot-wide antlers
By Jason Daley – Smithsonian.com –
(Pat Grimes/Ardboe Heritage).
Recently, fishermen Raymond McElroy and Charlie Coyle were out on Lough Neagh, a lake near the town of Ardboe in northern Ireland, when they tried to pull up one of their nets. It would barely budge, so they assumed it was caught on a piece of driftwood. But Ronan McGreevy at The Irish Times reports what they pulled up wasn’t wood, it was bone. The fisherman landed the massive skull of a Great Elk (Megaloceros giganteus), the largest deer species to ever exist which died out in Ireland about 10,500 years ago.
This particular great elk probably stood 6.5 feet tall at the shoulders. More impressive, however, are its antlers, which in this case were also over 6 feet wide.
“I thought it was the devil himself,” Coyle tells McGreevy. “I was going to throw it back in. I didn’t know what to do with it.”
Luckily, however, McElroy knew just what the skull was since a huge jawbone from one of the elk—and possibly from the same animal—was fished up from the area in 2014, also making the local news.
The Great Elk, also known as the Irish Elk, has a misleading name. It’s not an elk, but a huge deer species—some individuals had antlers up to 12 feet wide. And it’s not Irish; according to the University of California Museum of Paleontology, the species actually roamed all of Europe, north Africa, northern Asia and a related species lived in China. The reason it is associated with Ireland is because intact fossils of the giant beast are sometimes found in lake beds and bogs on the island, which are especially good at preserving the bones.
The elk also has another claim to fame. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, many scientists believed that the extinction of animals was impossible. Fossils, they believed, were just the remains of animals that explorers would eventually find somewhere hidden on Earth. The remains of the Great Elk was one of the animals used by French scientist Georges Cuvier to show that extinction did in fact take place.
Mike Simms at the Ulster Museum tells Shauna Corr at Belfast Live that the Great Elk was well-suited to the early Pleistocene when Europe was full of grassy plains, but when the last glaciers receded and the habitat changed, the elk couldn’t cope.
“They came in [to Ireland] when the weather was great on the grass plains, but then the trees started to grow,” he says. “Giant antlers aren’t great in the forest. Environmental change is what caused their extinction.”
Simms says that the species went extinct in Ireland about 10,500 years ago but managed to hold on in Siberia until about 6,500 years ago.
Currently, the plans for the antlers are unclear, and McElroy is keeping the massive skull in his garage. Kimberley Hickok at LiveScience reports that in 1987 another fisherman pulled up a massive set of antlers from the lake and donated them to a local school for display.
(Read more: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/catch-day-7-foot-tall-deer-180970247/)
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by Matt Davis –
Big Think illustration / Actor Peter Gallagher attends the 24th and final ‘A Night at Sardi’s’ to benefit the Alzheimer’s Association at The Beverly Hilton Hotel on March 9, 2016 in Beverly Hills, California. (Photo by Alberto E. Rodriguez/Getty Images)
Life is already hard enough, but some people seem hell-bent on making it harder. We’ve all met people who refuse to accept blame, exploit their relationships, or elevate themselves by knocking everyone else down a peg or two. You might be able to minimize contact with these folks, but it’s impossible to avoid them. They’re narcissists, and they’re everywhere. In America, narcissism is actually on the rise, so maybe it’s a good time to get back into that soothing meditation practice you’ve been putting off.
Fortunately, new research has provided an excellent clue for identifying the narcissists lurking among us: the eyebrows. A study by Miranda Giacomin and Nicholas O. Rule has shown that bushier eyebrows are associated with higher levels of narcissism.
There are a few different flavors of narcissism, but this study examined the classic type: grandiose narcissists. They’re the kind that craves attention, are extroverted, have a high opinion of themselves, and fail to recognize their inner emptiness. According to Giacomin and Rule’s results, this type of narcissist has far more distinctive eyebrows than non-narcissists.
What do eyebrows have to do with narcissism?
Research has already shown that people can judge narcissism by appearance. After all, narcissists tend to wear flashier clothes or apply more extravagant makeup. But even unadorned and unaltered faces offer a cue for narcissism. This study strove to find out whether it was the whole face that gave the impression of narcissism or a single feature, and if so, to identify which feature was tipping people off.
Eyebrows are one of, if not the most, expressive features on the face. They are crucial to recognizing identities—for example, a study found that people had more trouble recognizing celebrities with their eyebrows removed than with their eyeballs removed (in Photoshop, relax guys). Eyebrows have been found to influence attractiveness and mate selection as well.
“Because grandiose narcissists strongly desire recognition and admiration,” the researchers said, “they may seek to maintain distinct eyebrows to facilitate others’ ability to notice, recognize, and remember them; hereby increasing their likability and reinforcing their overly positive self-views.”
How did the study find this out?
First, the researchers administered the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (or the NPI) to several undergraduate students. This test is designed to measure the narcissism personality trait through how much respondents agreed with statements like “The world would be a better place if I ruled it.” Narcissists (surprise, surprise) tend to agree with such statements.
It’s important to note that the NPI doesn’t measure clinical narcissism. Rather, it measures the personality trait of narcissism. To one degree or another, we all have some element of self-love in our personalities, only some people love themselves to excess.
After taking the NPI, the students’ faces were then photographed, and the researchers asked a sample of participants to judge how narcissistic the photographed faces appeared. At this stage, all participants were able to accurately guess how highly each photographed person had scored on the NPI. This result was no surprise since it’s already known that observers can judge narcissism from a person’s appearance alone.
Using a clever cognitive trick, the researchers could determine if it was the faces as a whole or a distinct feature of the faces that conveyed narcissism: People process upright faces as wholes, but inverted faces are processed as collections of features. Because the participants could predict narcissism when the faces were inverted, the researchers concluded that one specific feature of the face was clueing people in.
Then, the researchers obscured different features of the faces until they had narrowed down which was giving off the telltale vibes of a narcissist. Surprisingly, participants could judge how narcissistic someone was even if they could only see a single eyebrow.
The participants were also asked to rate eyebrows in terms of femininity, grooming, and distinctiveness, but only distinctiveness was correlated with accurately judging narcissism. What exactly does distinctiveness mean? Density, bushiness, brow power; a narcissist’s calling card.
Of course, the study was not able to tell whether people who are more likely to be narcissists also have inherently bushy eyebrows or whether narcissists tend to deliberately cultivate bushy eyebrows. And, although it ought not to need to be said, not everybody with bushy eyebrows is a narcissist and not every narcissist has bushy eyebrows. Regardless, the study provides insight into how we process faces and our latent ability to detect toxic people before it’s too late. For more information on how best to deal with narcissists and other high-conflict personalities, check out the video below.
Imagine if anytime, anywhere you felt a little fatigued in the legs you could simply lean back and take a load off? The developers of Lex are working towards such a future with a folding exoskeleton that turns into an ergonomic chair in just a few seconds.
Lex is much like Chairless Chair we looked at back in March, in that it is essentially a seat that you wear and carry around with you. Where the Chairless Chair is aimed at factory workers in need of respite, Lex seems to be designed with all day, everyday use in mind.
Adhering to its owner with just a waist strap and two leg straps, Lex is made from aircraft-grade aluminum and weighs just over a kilogram (2.2 lb). When the user is on the go, it folds up into a neat, slimline package that allows full freedom of movement.
It also features a handy load-transfer module for backpack wearers, which comprises a flexible panel that extends upwards to the base of the bag and transfers up to 50 percent of the weight from the shoulders to the body’s core.
And when it comes time to take a rest, Lex’s two legs can be unfurled by pulling on the release levers behind each buttock. Despite its lightweight frame, Lex can support up to 120 kg (264 lb), and is designed to go further than simply offering a place to park your backside.
Astride Bionix, the startup behind Lex, says a lot of energy went into making it seat its owners at just the right angles. It is designed to prop people up with their thighs at a 120-degree angle to the body, which is claimed to promote good posture by keeping the spine in its natural position.
(For the balance of this article, plus a video, see: https://newatlas.com/lex-folding-wearable-chair/56211/)
The personal robot Temi put in an appearance at IFA recently, alongside the news that it will go on sale worldwide October 1 for the confirmed price of US$1,500. Its makers call it the first truly-useful personal robot.
That may be true, depending on how much you make video calls and consume media, or more crucially, if you’d want to do those things using a waste-high screen that follows you around your house.
How it does that is rather impressive, though. Temi (styled tēmi, if you prefer) features an array of sensors to get its bearings and navigate its environment. To wit:
- One 360-degree LiDAR
- Two depth cameras
- Two RGB cameras
- Five proximity sensors
- One IMU sensor
- Six Time of Flight linear sensors
Left to its own devices it will explore and form a 2D map of the home, but crucially the user can tell Temi (pronounced tea-me) to remember particular locations. That done, say “Hey Temi – go to the kitchen” and Temi will do just that, cruel practical jokes notwithstanding.
But say “Hey Temi – follow me” and Temi will track the source of that command (the user’s face), then use its laser to track down to the user’s legs, which it is able to follow. Impressively, it won’t (in theory) be confused by someone else crossing its path – it will continue to follow the issuer of the command.
What you do with it when it gets where you want it is pretty much what you can do with a tablet, as that’s basically what Temi’s head is. It runs Android, though it’s not clear if it will run apps from the Google Play store. That may be unlikely as Temi’s makers plan to launch an app store for Temi itself.
The big-ticket features were video calling and media consumption, and the pitch is that a robot you can talk to is a more pleasant way to do this than prodding and poking a screen. In reality, whether the immediacy of a tactile device proves the more compelling remains to be seen, though we suspect so.
(For more photos, and the balance of this article visit: https://newatlas.com/temi-personal-robot/56146/)
All those tiny discs add up.
Every day, 45 million Americans stuff slivers of flexible plastic into their eyes, hoping to look less like nerds. While contacts-wearers become quite adept at poking them into place, a new study from researchers from Arizona State University suggests users are not very good at dealing with lenses once they’re done with them. All those tiny discarded plastic discs, they report, are adding up to a big environmental problem.
According to the findings, presented Sunday at the 256th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society, anywhere from six to 10 metric tons of plastic lenses end up in United States wastewater annually. Because of the way wastewater is treated, all that plastic ends up contributing to microplastic pollution currently building up in waterways, which eventually makes its way into the food chain. It’s an especially timely problem as the use of contact lenses is steadily rising.
“This began as an exploratory venture but we have information to support the fragmentation of contact lenses into microplastics within a wastewater treatment plant,” study co-author and Arizona State University graduate student Charles Rolsky tells Inverse.
The emergence of probiotics on supermarket shelves is further proof of our habit of putting the cart before the horse. Researchers discover a potential breakthrough; the public gain a little knowledge of this before extensive clinical studies can be conducted; bottles of probiotics—echoing the American mantra, “more is better!”—fly off the shelves. A wonder-cure is born.
Probiotics might possess incredible healing powers, but specificity matters. You can’t overload on any old bacteria and expect the results to only be positive. As science writer Ed Yong points out, destroying “harmful” bacteria can ultimately cause chaos in the microbiome ecosystem.
A recent study from Augusta University brought more bad news:
Probiotics might possess incredible healing powers, but specificity matters. You can’t overload on any old bacteria and expect the results to only be positive. As science writer Ed Yong points out, destroying “harmful” bacteria can ultimately cause chaos in the microbiome ecosystem.
A recent study from Augusta University brought more bad news:
Probiotic use can result in a significant accumulation of bacteria in the small intestine that can result in disorienting brain fogginess as well as rapid, significant belly bloating, investigators report.
That study only involved 30 patients, so we should take those results with caution. Yet caution is the last thing companies mailing you home microbiome kits are displaying. A whole host of businesses promise to shed insight on your insides when you mail in a vial of your poop; the results have not been sound.
And yet, poop holds the key to understanding your insides. It just requires more extensive testing. The only therapeutic application regarding the microbiome that’s holding up, according to Yong, is fecal microbiota transplant—using someone else’s poop to colonize your colon, through a colonoscopy, enema, orogastric tube, or by ingesting freeze-dried poop in capsule form. While the gag reflex often follows the explanation, this therapy is being used to treat a variety of gastrointestinal disorders and even neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s.
Not all bacterial sets will treat every symptom, Yong continues; patients with the same illness will not be healed with the same poop. That’s because microbiome diversity is an essential component of individual health. Bacterial combinations have to be tailored to each patient. “These are not one-size-fits-all solutions. They will need to be personalized,” says Yong.
Personalized medicine is an important evolution in our understanding of treatment; it will require vigilant research and large populations to study. Some treatments really are universal, such as vitamin C treating scurvy. Yet when it comes to what’s inside of our guts, too many individual factors need to be considered: diet, genetics, environment, stress and fitness levels, just to begin with.
The microbiome is one of the most fascinating areas of research despite so-called holistic companies capitalizing on an uncertain trend, which made this news raise a few eyebrows recently:
Scientists at Wake Forest School of Medicine have developed a probiotic “cocktail” derived from gut bacteria strains found in infant feces that may help increase the body’s ability to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs).
Hariom Yadav, lead author and assistant professor of molecular medicine, notes that patients with diabetes, obesity, autoimmune disorders, and cancers often have low levels of SCFAs. He speculates that increasing these acids might improve their conditions, leading to better overall health.
Yadav also states that the over-the-counter variety of probiotics has deceived the public. Clinical research has only been conducted on animals and humans with diseases, not disease-free subjects. Buying supplements for general health and well-being is unfounded, with the research being inconsistent as to its actual benefit.
For this study, published in the Nature journal, Scientific Reports, Yadav’s team collected fecal samples from 34 healthy infants, totaling 321 diaper samples. They analyzed the best ten samples they collected, treating mice and human feces with the same cocktails in either single- or five-dose feedings.
While the study didn’t focus on any specific disease, Yadav was focused on the proliferation of SCFAs, observing if they could repopulate ecosystems. He felt confident in the results:
This work provides evidence that these human-origin probiotics could be exploited as biotherapeutic regimens for human diseases associated with gut microbiome imbalance and decreased SCFA production in the gut. Our data should be useful for future studies aimed at investigating the influence of probiotics on human microbiome, metabolism and associated diseases.
Given that we often don’t understand the chemistry inside many of the capsules we consume, freeze-dried poop might be the future of treatment, at least for certain diseases. While Yadav’s evidence is not conclusive—you might want to reconsider any solution by Gerber’s in the near future—the state of our guts continues to fascinate. And if a colony of bacteria proves helpful in treating some of our most deadly diseases, swallow away.
(For a video on Microbiome see the source of this article at: https://bigthink.com/21st-century-spirituality/baby-poop-capsules-coming-soon-to-a-pharmacy-near-you/)
For all its flaws, the Internet can be a source of wondrous things and one such curiosity has been a resurfacing video of a man passing his hand through molten metal without getting hurt. Some have dubbed him “the undying Russian” for the nonchalant way he seems to be interacting with a flow of steel that’s around 1370 degrees C (2500°F). Is the man some sort of magician or a yogi or can science explain this phenomenon?
Of course, science can. The man, who is actually not Russian, but an Armenian steel worker named Arkady Mgdsyan, is enjoying the benefits of the so-called Leidenfrost effect.
Mgdsyan learned of this effect from his co-workers, who have almost all pulled off this feat, their steel mill’s tradition. The trick is kind of a professional rite of passage.
Mgdsyan was quite apprehensive about trying to stick his hand in molten metal, even after watching others do it. In an interview, he explained the way to achieve this effect (although this is truly a “don’t try this at home” situation) –
“If you water your hand properly prior to touching the molten mass, the steam will protect your skin from being scorched for a brief moment,” he elaborated.
Indeed, the Leidenfrost effect phenomenon occurs when water touches a molten surface, with a much higher boiling point. At that moment, an insulating layer of steam is generated. This vapor layer, like a repulsive force, keeps that liquid from boiling too rapidly. So you can stick your wet hand in an out, like Mgdsyan.
There’s a fun segment from Mythbusters just about this phenomenon. See what happens as they stick fingers into the molten lead.
It’s a time-honored tradition for companies and governments to hire hackers to see if they can get through security systems, software, and hardware. The reason? So that said systems can be improved, strengthened, and firmed up.
The State of Florida, among others, might need to hire an 11-year-old boy to work on that kind of thing; first, though, its representative organization, the National Association of Secretaries of State, got a little miffed that a bunch of people sat in a room and tried to hack its vote totals websites—or, more accurately, replicas thereof. The organization’s statement was quoted and commented on by Buzzfeed’s cybersecurity correspondent, Kevin Collier.
It all happened at the annual DEF CON gathering in Las Vegas, where a group of hackers was tasked with breaking into replicas of the Florida Secretary of State’s election totals reporting web page. Eleven-year-old Emmett Brewer, whose father has been at DEFCON four times and works in the cyber-security field, accomplished this in 10 minutes via a technique known as ‘SQL injection’.
The company that created the replicas, Wall of Sheep, noted in a statement that this is not unique to Florida. “The main issues with the live sites we are creating the replicas of are related to poor coding practices. They have popped up across the industry and are not vendor specific.”
“It’s actually kind of scary,” said Brewer. “People can easily hack into websites like these and they can probably do way more harmful things to these types of websites.”
Wickr’s founder, Nico Sell, had some sobering words to say about why the company wanted to cover this in a workshop at DEF CON: “The really important reason why we’re doing this is because we’re not taking the problem serious enough how significantly someone can mess with our elections,” said Sell. “And by showing this with eight-year-old kids we can call attention to the problem in such a way that we can fix the system so our democracy isn’t ruined.”
If this is taken seriously, rather than brushed off as theater by those in charge of information technology at the 18 states that use code exactly like the pages that were hacked, then perhaps democracy has a chance in November and beyond.
(Source, and for a video, visit: https://bigthink.com/brandon-weber/did-11-year-old-kid-hack-the-florida-secretary-of-state-voting-website/)
by Mike Colagrossi –
Throughout history, mankind has often been enthralled by stories of mythical places, cities, and paradises shrouded in secrets and lost to the sands of time. These legendary locations pervade all great cultural histories. Some have served as allegories for more prosperous and peaceful times, others as places to find and conquer!
While philosophers weaved tales about lost cities, ancients also dreamt of places that once gave rise to utopian golden ages. A journey through the history of these fabled lands has captivated many. Some people might even be inspired to believe in them all over again.
Here are the 7 most famous mythical places in the world.
Artists depiction of Atlantis, Werner Brigette, Pixabay.
Unlike many stories whose appearance have been lost to the historical record, we know exactly when and who invented the story of Atlantis. The story was first told by Plato around 330 BCE, in two of his dialogues “Timaeus” and “Critias.” It’s been established that there was no record of Atlantis before these texts and that Plato created this place as a plot device in his stories.
The Sunken City of Atlantis was supposed to be an incredibly powerful civilization that was sophisticated, wealthy and founded by demigods. It was made up of many concentric islands with exotic plants and animals aplenty. He used these people as an example of what befalls a nation when they succumb to hubris.
Despite this story’s origin in pure fiction, many people over the millennia have sought out this mythical place. A lot of the speculations were inspired by a book written by a Minnesota politician, Ignatius L. Donnelly, in 1882. He believed that Plato considered Atlantis a real place. He went on to explain its histories and supposed rule over large swathes of the world, his theory being that all ancient civilizations descended from this one land.
The Last Sleep of Arthur, Wikimedia Commons. Supposedly, the background is Avalon.
Glastonbury, a town in England, well known for its neo-pagan beliefs and local Arthurian legends was once thought of the location for the legendary, idyllic and lost paradise of Avalon. The first mention of Avalon was in 1136 through Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae. According to Arthurian legend, the island was ruled by Morgan le Fay, an enchantress who nursed King Arthur back to health after a battle.
The mystical land was sometimes referred to as the Island of Apples because it was supposedly covered in wild grapevines and apple forests. Its inhabitants were immortals as well. This was the place that the great sword Excalibur was forged. This magical place is where King Arthur was laid to rest and laid on a bed of gold.
Thomas Cole’s ‘The Arcadian’, Public domain.
A couple of hundred years before Plato’s time, the Ancient Greeks imagined a place called Arcadia. This early vision utopia is also the name of a region in modern-day Greece. In ancient mythology, Arcadia was a pastoral back-to-nature place. The wilderness housed Pan, a woodlands God who resided with his nymphs and satyrs as his guards of a never-ending hedonistic paradise. This was a place where beings greater than humans ascended to and lived in prosperous delight for hundreds of years. It was an Eden where spirits and gods gallivanted in ecstasy and longevity.
Arcadia has remained a popular muse for artists from antiquities onwards. Virgil and Ovid set many of their poems in these primeval forests. Medieval European writers and Renaissance painters all tried to capture the spirit of this golden age land. Arcadia is the archetypical view of a place untouched by civilization where humans live as gods.
Hessel Gerritsz from 1625, depicting the city of Manoa / El Dorado on the left of the lake.
Conquistadors riding through 16th century South America scoured the land for a mythical city of gold. El Dorado started out as a story about a king named “The Gilded One.” He was said to be a native king who powdered his body with gold and tossed ornate jewels into a lake as part of his coronation. These stories eventually would morph into a tale of a kingdom rather than an individual man.
The legends grew over the years as the Europeans spread and discovered more of South America. The golden city was a place of untold prestige and wealth, which captivated plenty of adventurers. El Dorado was said to be next to Lake Guatavita – a real space they’d eventually find. When explorers found the lake, they lowered the level of the water and found hundreds of gold pieces. But the fabled city remained out of their grasp until all swathes of South American land were eventually covered and the myth was no more.
Map of Lemuria according to William Scott-Elliott.
This hidden land was told through stories many ages before Atlantis. There are many origins to Lemuria, some occult writings, pseudo-histories and even scientific musings of a lost continent as well. Many texts from the east talk about a land called ‘Ra-Mu.’ In some sacred Tibetan texts, this land is also known as Muri or Lemuria.
Madame Blavatsky, a Russian occultist who co-founded the Theosophical society in 1875, wrote a thrilling fiction about this secret land. Blavatsky claims in her “The Secret Doctrine” text that Lemuria contained a third race of Lemurians, she also posited that Atlantis also existed. Her Lemurians were described as having four arms and a psychic eye on the back of their head, which they used to communicate with one another through telepathy. This is a definite favorite amongst occultists and esoteric conspiracists.
Far Cry 4 concept art, apparently of Shangri-La.
Shambhala is a Sanskrit word that means “place of peace.” This is an ancient mythical paradise that predates Tibetan Buddhism. The name was first seen in the scriptures of Zhang Zhung in western Tibet. According to the legend, it’s a kind of heaven where only the purest can live in a place bountiful with love and wisdom. There is no old age or suffering here in this mythical kingdom.
Also known as Shangri-la, this place has been called by many names throughout the years. Sometimes called the Forbidden Land, Land of Radiant Spirits and Land of the Living Gods. Many westerners believed it to be a real place for some time, hidden deep within the Tibetan mountains. In Buddhist traditions it’s said to be ruled over by a future Buddha named Maitreya and when the world declines into abject war and degeneracy, a great war will come as the Shambhala Kings ride out to defeat “dark forces” It is after this time in which the world will be ushered into a new Golden Age.
A place of intrigue for many explorers, poets, and even Nazi occultists, Thule was a territory that was said to be located in the frozen north near the Arctic. The tale dates back to 4th century BCE when a Greek explorer named Pytheas claimed to have traveled to an icy island north of Scotland.
Many of Pytheas’ fellow explorers doubted the validity of his claims, but the Thule legend would live on through the ages. Eventually, the original location was most likely a mistaken Norway or Iceland. The myth of the island is most famously connected to the Thule Society, a post World War I organization that believed Thule to be the ancestral home of an Aryan race.
(Source, and for a video, please visit: https://bigthink.com/mike-colagrossi/7-most-famous-mythical-places/)
Getting serious about plant intelligence
Monica Gagliano studies learning and memory in plants. She’s an “evolutionary ecologist” who performs behavioral experiments on plants that are adapted from studies of animal intelligence. Her work has convinced her that plants learn and have memories. Gagliano’s been cited in The New Yorker, and she spoke recently to radiolab. Her peer-reviewed conclusions are at times controversial, though specific criticisms of her methodologies have been sparse. In promoting her upcoming book, Thus Spoke the Plant, she gave a thought-provoking interview to Andréa Morris writing for Forbes in May 2018.
Gagliano admits it’s a field of study that not everyone takes seriously, and she’s weary of being lumped in with the group of 36 scientists who published a 2006 article announcing the birth of “plant neurobiology,” a provocative choice considering that plants don’t have neurons, at least in their usual sense. Gagliano says that rather than advance further research, their announcement impeded it, at least in part due to the intense objections it provoked that still resonate. As recently as 2013, cellular and molecular physiologist Clifford Slayman told Michael Pollan in the above-cited The New Yorker piece that plant neurobiology was, “the last serious confrontation between the scientific community and the nuthouse on these issues.”
For skeptics, the plant neurobiology article was likely just another bit of ridiculousness after the now-largely discredited 1973 book The Secret Life of Plants credited plants with consciousness — and psychic abilities. Daniel Chamovitz, author of What a Plant Knows says that 1973 book “stymied important research on plant behavior as scientists became wary of any studies that hinted at parallels between animal senses and plant senses.”
Another roadblock to what Gagliano calls “plant cognitive ecology” research is, she says, that, “Many plant biologists, especially physiologists, are actually very much into little molecules and little signals and this chemical does this and therefore the plant does this and on and on.” To the ecologist, “In a sense, there is no plant and environment. The plant and environment are one unit. For me, a plant isn’t an object, it’s always a subject that is interacting with other subjects in the environment. I had to learn. I just assumed that everyone would see things like this. But no.”
(Flickr user m01229)
Gagliano believes nonetheless that by being meticulous with her own methodology, and by being rigorously discriminating in her conclusions, she’s producing science that will eventually be validated. She finds the usual dismissiveness of the entire field maddeningly unscientific: “It’s counterproductive when a new field needs good, solid, strong, data-driven science. Instead, it dilutes, in a way, the impact that the science could have. It’s kind of unacceptable in any field, let alone a new field. So for me, what this field really needs is true vision and data — more experimental work.”
Studying plant “behavior”
While “behavior” may seem an odd word to use, the undisputed fact is that plants do respond to stimuli, albeit often very slowly over the course of hours, days, or weeks. This makes it easy to feel like nothing is going on with them. Still, as Pollan points out, “A race of aliens living in a radically sped-up dimension of time arrive on Earth and, unable to detect any movement in humans, come to the logical conclusion that we are “inert material” with which they may do as they please. The aliens proceed ruthlessly to exploit us.”
Plants do, however, sometimes move in a time frame we can perceive, as in Gagliano’s controversial study of Mimosa pudica — or “touch-me-not” — a plant whose leaves fold when touched or disturbed, the assumption being that it’s the plant’s response to insects that might pose a threat.
In Gagliano’s experiment, she dropped 56 potted mimosas from a height of 15 centimeters, causing their leaves to fold as expected. Looking to find out if they could “habituate” to the disturbance, she repeated the process 60 times, finding that even after four to six drops, the mimosas no longer responded. “By the end, they were completely open,” she said in presenting her research to other scientists. “They couldn’t care less anymore.”
To eliminate fatigue as the explanation, and to see if the plants could remember what they’d learned, Gagliano left the mimosas to recover, retesting them in a week and again 28 days later. She found that their leaves no longer responded to being dropped, suggesting that the plants did, in fact, remember their lessons of nearly a month earlier. Gagliano concluded that brains like ours and animals’ may not actually be required for learning, but rather that there’s “some unifying mechanism across living systems that can process information and learn.” The audience response to her presentation was divided.
A sessile lifestyle
There’s an important challenge that plants face which must be recognized and factored in: They’re “sessile,” rooted to the ground and, as Pollan puts it, a plant “has to find everything it needs, and has to defend itself, while remaining fixed in place.” He writes that plants, therefore, require an “extensive and nuanced understanding” of what’s around them to have a chance of surviving. “A highly developed sensory apparatus is required to locate food and identify threats.”
(For the balance of this article please visit: https://bigthink.com/robby-berman/getting-serious-about-plant-intelligence/)
Some Santas came from as far away as Japan.
COPENHAGEN (Reuters) – Braving Europe’s heatwave, more than 150 Santas from around the world donned their heavy suits and full beards at their annual conference in Denmark.
As the 61st World Santa Claus Congress kicked off in Copenhagen, many of the delegates – from countries as far away as Japan and the United States – took a paddle in the sea, to the amusement of local bathers.
The three-day event will see the Santas visit the Little Mermaid statue during a parade and go head to head in the Santa Obstacle Course World Championships.
“Normally us Santas work alone,” said Santa Ian Tom, 67, from Scotland, who is attending his sixth congress this year.
“This is like a big family. But a family you get on with.”
For Santa Douglas, 60, from Washington D.C., attending his twelfth convention, it’s the international feel of the event that keeps luring him back.
“It’s interesting how when meeting others their culture starts to rub off on you and yours on them. For example, a lot of the Santa suits now are not the traditional gray Danish one. They’ve gone more American, which in a way is a shame.”
(For the source of this article, and to see a video of the marching Santas, visit: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/santa-congress-denmark_us_5b57ada9e4b0b15aba934af4/)
If it seems that it was just about a year ago that scientists finally figured out the mystery behind the Bermuda Triangle, it was. The culprits behind the legendary disappearances of ships and planes were said to be powerful hexagonal cloud formations. Except that now, a team led by Simon Boxall, an oceanographer from the Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre Southampton at the University of Southampton, claims to have finally finally solved the riddle, and it’s not clouds. It’s ginormous rogue waves, a legendary maritime phenomenon all their own.
Monsters of the deep
Until the so-called 18.5-meter — that’s nearly 61 feet high — Draupner wave was observed, via satellite, on New Year’s Day in 1995, it wasn’t entirely certain that rogue waves weren’t just the stuff of maritime legend. These monsters are terrifying anomalies: Unpredictable massive walls of water coursing across the ocean, capable of wiping out most anything they happen to encounter.
According to site Freak Waves, rogue waves can have a force as powerful as 100 metric tons per square meter. For a sense of scale, a normal 12-meter wave produces about 6 metric tons of force. Ships are built to withstand about 15 metric tons per square meter. And the Draupner wave was nothing compared to other reported waves, such as the pair that injured 50 passengers a month later when the Queen Elizabeth II ran into them in North Atlantic bad weather. One, at least, was estimated to be about 95 feet high.
“At 0410 the rogue wave was sighted right ahead, looming out of the darkness from 220°, it looked as though the ship was heading straight for the white cliffs of Dover. The wave seemed to take ages to arrive but it was probably less than a minute before it broke with tremendous force over the bow. An incredible shudder went through the ship, followed a few minutes later by two smaller shudders. There seemed to be two waves in succession as the ship fell into the ‘hole’ behind the first one. The second wave of 28-29 m (period 13 seconds), whilst breaking, crashed over the foredeck, carrying away the forward whistle mast.” — Captain of the QE II
What’s this got to do with the Bermuda Triangle?
One of the earliest ships to have disappeared in the Bermuda Triangle was the USS Cyclops, which disappeared en route from the West Indies to Baltimore in 1918. At 550 feet long, it was the largest ship in the U.S. Navy at the time, and not a trace of it was ever found. It was carrying manganese ore and had a crew of 309. Its last message before vanishing was “Weather Fair, All Well.”
Numerous theories have been put forward over the years about what happened to the ship, including the possibility that it was an unacknowledged casualty of World War I, which had begun a year before its voyage.
Boxall’s team suspected the Cyclops was lost to a rogue wave and built an indoor simulation to demonstrate who it might have happened. Says Boxall, “If you can imagine a rogue wave with peaks at either end, there’s nothing below the boat, so it snaps in two. If it happens, it can sink in two to three minutes.” Other experts, such as Marvin W. Barrash, author of the book USS Cyclops, agree. Barrash told Forces.net, “She had a flat bottom, she rolled quite easily, and on one day she rolled approximately 50 degrees one way, and in the high forties the other way.”
Cyclops’ sister ships, Proteus and Nereus, also disappeared in the area, and they were also flat-bottomed.
Lovely weather for an aquatic behemoth
Boxall’s conclusion that rogue waves were behind other disappearances in the Triangle has to do in part with the area’s weather conditions being favorable to such monsters. Speaking on the UK’s Channel 5 program “The Bermuda Triangle Enigma,” Boxall notes that the Triangle’s climate is about right: “There are storms to the South and North, which come together… we’ve measured waves in excess of 30 meters. The bigger the boat gets, the more damage is done. And if there are additional ones from Florida, it can be a potentially deadly formation of rogue waves.”
Having said all that, is the Bermuda Triangle really real?
It depends on who you ask. According to the U.S. Coast Guard, that’s a “nope”:
The Coast Guard does not recognize the existence of the so-called Bermuda Triangle as a geographic area of specific hazard to ships or planes. In a review of many aircraft and vessel losses in the area over the years, there has been nothing discovered that would indicate that casualties were the result of anything other than physical causes. No extraordinary factors have ever been identified.
The National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA, agrees, saying:
Environmental considerations could explain many, if not most, of the disappearances. The majority of Atlantic tropical storms and hurricanes pass through the Bermuda Triangle, and in the days prior to improved weather forecasting, these dangerous storms claimed many ships. Also, the Gulf Stream can cause rapid, sometimes violent, changes in weather. Additionally, the large number of islands in the Caribbean Sea creates many areas of shallow water that can be treacherous to ship navigation.
NOAA does concede that “there is some evidence to suggest that the Bermuda Triangle is a place where a ‘magnetic’ compass sometimes points towards ‘true’ north, as opposed to ‘magnetic’ north.
Still, NOAA finds, “The U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard contend that there are no supernatural explanations for disasters at sea. Their experience suggests that the combined forces of nature and human fallibility outdo even the most incredulous science fiction.”
As science writer, Dr. Karl Kruszelnicki told News.com, “the number of planes that go missing in the Bermuda Triangle is the same as anywhere in the world on a percentage basis.”
This won’t, of course, convince every Bermuda Triangle believer, such as the Reddit member who posted in response to Boxall’s theory, “But that doesn’t explain the airplanes that went missing in the area…” Says another, “Flown over it a few times. Very disappointed that I’m still alive.”
(Source, and for photo’s of Boxall’s simulation, visit: https://bigthink.com/robby-berman/the-bermuda-triangle-mystery-is-solved-again/)
President Trump was almost universally panned for the press conference that followed the meeting with Russia’s President Putin in Helsinki, Finland. Trump was seen as capitulating to Russia by refusing to confront Putin on the issue of past and present interference in American elections. In fact, the American president seemed to be saying he doesn’t support the findings of his own intelligence agencies and instead prefers to take the Russian leader at his word. Even if he’s changed his tune under the backlash.
Whether you believe Putin really has some kind of compromising material to make Trump do his bidding or if Trump is simply being nice to people who partially helped get him elected, or if you somehow still think, despite ample evidence to the contrary, that all this is much ado about nothing, the fact is President Putin is a very experienced former KGB officer. He has both the know-how and the intelligence to carry out very far-sighted and ingenious operations. We don’t know his endgame and neither do we know how much of his KGB training he still employs, but in light of current events, there may be a way for us to get a deeper understanding by studying the words of Yuri Alexandrovich Bezmenov, a former KGB agent who defected to Canada in 1970.
In 1984, Bezmenov gave an interview to G. Edward Griffin from which much can be learned today. His most chilling point was that there’s a long-term plan put in play by Russia to defeat America through psychological warfare and “demoralization”. It’s a long game that takes decades to achieve but it may already be bearing fruit.
Bezmenov made the point that the work of the KGB mainly does not involve espionage, despite what our popular culture may tell us. Most of the work, 85% of it, was “a slow process which we call either ideological subversion, active measures, or psychological warfare.”
What does that mean? Bezmenov explained that the most striking thing about ideological subversion is that it happens in the open as a legitimate process. “You can see it with your own eyes,” he said. The American media would be able to see it, if it just focused on it.
Here’s how he further defined ideological subversion:
“What it basically means is: to change the perception of reality of every American to such an extent that despite of the abundance of information no one is able to come to sensible conclusions in the interest of defending themselves, their families, their community, and their country.”
Bezmenov described this process as “a great brainwashing” which has four basic stages. The first stage is called “demoralization” which takes from 15 to 20 years to achieve. According to the former KGB agent, that is the minimum number of years it takes to re-educate one generation of students that is normally exposed to the ideology of its country. In other words, the time it takes to change what the people are thinking.
He used the examples of 1960s hippies coming to positions of power in the ’80s in the government and businesses of America. Bezmenov claimed this generation was already “contaminated” by Marxist-Leninist values. Of course, this claim that many baby boomers are somehow espousing KGB-tainted ideas is hard to believe but Bezmenov’s larger point addressed why people who have been gradually “demoralized” are unable to understand that this has happened to them.
Referring to such people, Bezmenov said:
“They are programmed to think and react to certain stimuli in a certain pattern [alluding to Pavlov]. You can not change their mind even if you expose them to authentic information. Even if you prove that white is white and black is black, you still can not change the basic perception and the logic of behavior.”
Demoralization is a process that is “irreversible”. Bezmenov actually thought (back in 1984) that the process of demoralizing America was already completed. It would take another generation and another couple of decades to get the people to think differently and return to their patriotic American values, claimed the agent.
In what is perhaps a most striking passage in the interview, here’s how Bezmenov described the state of a “demoralized” person:
“As I mentioned before, exposure to true information does not matter anymore,” said Bezmenov. “A person who was demoralized is unable to assess true information. The facts tell nothing to him. Even if I shower him with information, with authentic proof, with documents, with pictures; even if I take him by force to the Soviet Union and show him [a] concentration camp, he will refuse to believe it, until he [receives] a kick in his fan-bottom. When a military boot crashes his balls then he will understand. But not before that. That’s the [tragedy] of the situation of demoralization.”
It’s hard not to see in that the state of many modern Americans. We have become a society of polarized tribes, with some people flat out rejecting facts in favor of narratives and opinions.
Once demoralization is completed, the second stage of ideological brainwashing is “destabilization”. During this two-to-five-year period, asserted Bezmenov, what matters is the targeting of essential structural elements of a nation: economy, foreign relations, and defense systems. Basically, the subverter (Russia) would look to destabilize every one of those areas in the United States, considerably weakening it.
The third stage would be “crisis”. It would take only up to six weeks to send a country into crisis, explained Bezmenov. The crisis would bring “a violent change of power, structure, and economy” and will be followed by the last stage, “normalization.” That’s when your country is basically taken over, living under a new ideology and reality.
This will happen to America unless it gets rid of people who will bring it to a crisis, warned Bezmenov. What’s more “if people will fail to grasp the impending danger of that development, nothing ever can help [the] United States,” adding, “You may kiss goodbye to your freedom.”
It bears saying that when he made this statement, he was warning about baby boomers and Democrats of the time.
In another, somewhat terrifying excerpt, here’s what Bezmenov had to say about what is really happening in the United States. It may think it is living in peace, but it has been actively at war with Russia. And for some time:
“Most of the American politicians, media, and educational system trains another generation of people who think they are living at the peacetime,” said the former KGB agent. ”False. United States is in a state of war: undeclared, total war against the basic principles and foundations of this system.”
Whether you think that is true may depend on your politics, but the reality of Russian active measures, as has been outlined in the recent indictments by the special counselor Robert Mueller, give Bezmenov’s words new urgency.
(Source site, and you can watch the full interview by visiting: https://bigthink.com/paul-ratner/34-years-ago-a-kgb-defector-described-america-today/)
Say you’re engrossed in a task, scrolling through your phone or reading a book. Suddenly that creepy, prickly feeling grabs hold of you. Someone’s staring. You turn to find out who it is. Be they friend or foe, the feeling itself seems like an eerie sort of 6th sense. It’s also a necessary part of being human, an adaptation that kept our ancestors alive. So how is it that we can even do this? It’s actually an important feature of our sight, our brain, and certain social aspects of our species.
The biological phenomenon is known as “gaze detection” or “gaze perception.” Neurological studies have found that the brain cells which initiate this response are very precise. If someone turns their gaze off of you by turning just a few degrees to their left or right, that eerie feeling quickly fades. Scientists suggest that a complex neural network is behind gaze detection.
So far, the neural network responsible in humans remains unidentified. A study with macaque monkeys however, discovered the neurological circuits responsible for their gaze detection, even getting down to the specific cells involved.
We do know that ten distinct brain regions are involved with human sight, and there may be more. The visual cortex is the main contributor. This is a large area at the back of the brain, which supports many important aspects of sight. But other areas, such as the amygdala, which registers threats, must also be involved with gaze detection somehow.
Humans are sensitive to the gaze of others. When another person changes the direction of their attention, we automatically follow their gaze. It’s more than just being predators, who as a group are naturally sensitive and drawn toward changes in the environment. It also has to do with the cooperative and social nature of humans and how we’ve depended on one another throughout our history and development.
The visual cortex. By Coxer, Wikimedia Commons.
Another reason, if you look at human eyes in contrast to other animals, the sclera or white part surrounding the pupil is far larger. In most other species, the pupil takes up most of the eye. This is to obscure their eyes from predators. But for humans, a larger sclera allows us to notice the direction of each other’s gaze quickly.
Of course, we don’t have to be looking directly at someone to tell whether or not they’re staring at us. We can also evaluate the direction of their attention through our peripheral vision. But this method is much less accurate. A pair of studies finds that we can only accurately detect whether or not someone is staring at us within four degrees of our “central fixation point.”
It isn’t always about seeing another’s eyes. With our peripheral vision, we consider the position of their head. And other clues, such as how their body is positioned, lend to whether we think they’re looking at us or not. What if we’re not sure? Just to be safe, the brain errs on the side of caution. It assumes we’re being stared at, if there’s any doubt.
So what about when we feel someone staring from behind? According to a 2013 study published in the journal Current Biology, that’s just a fail-safe. Humans are hardwired to think that someone is starting at us when we can’t see them, even if we have no evidence to suggest so.
We’re hardwired to assume someone is staring from behind. Getty Images.
Psychology Professor Colin Clifford of the University of Sydney’s Vision Centre, found that when people can’t tell where a person is looking, they automatically assume they’re looking at them. “A direct gaze can signal dominance or a threat, and if you perceive something as a threat, you would not want to miss it,” he said. “So simply assuming another person is looking at you may be the safest strategy.”
Looking at someone is also a social cue. It usually means you want to talk to them. Since it’s our natural inclination to assume someone behind us is staring, the feeling we get may initiate a self-fulfilling prophecy. When we turn around, our action calls up the other person’s gaze. But when they meet our eyes, they give us the impression that they’ve been staring the whole time.
Another answer could be confirmation bias. We remember only the times we turned around and someone was staring (or appeared to be), and not the times they weren’t. And that weird, tingly sensation? It’s psychological and emanates from the thought of being stared at, not the physical act itself.
(For the balance of this article please visit: https://bigthink.com/philip-perry/why-is-it-you-can-sense-when-someones-staring-at-you/)
Take look at a map of Turkey and you’ll have to agree: it’s a curiously box-shaped country. Why is the wrong question. Like most international borders, Turkey’s are the result of geopolitical accident, not of aesthetic or geometric design. A more pertinent query: How rectangular is Turkey? Is it, perhaps, the most rectangular country in the world?
To answer that question, you’d have to find a dataset that minutely describes the borders of all countries on Earth and devise an algorithm that compares each country’s shape to an optimum rectangle with the same area.
That’s exactly what Australian geo-statistician David Barry did. His conclusion: Turkey is only the 15th most rectangular country in the world. The winner: Egypt.
Inevitably, one esoteric geographical question led to its opposite: What is the roundest country in the world? That one was answered by Gonzalo Ciruelos, an Argentinian mathematician. The top of that ranking is Sierra Leone.
As the winners in both categories indicate, Africa is a country of great diversity in geopolitical morphology. But the most curious country in either ranking is… the Vatican. As it turns out, the Papal State is both the 4th roundest and the 2nd most rectangular country in the world. How is that possible?
First, let’s have a closer look at the results. In Mr Barry’s definition, ‘optimum rectangularity’ is the maximum percentage overlap of a country with a rectangle of the same area.
He’s the first to admit that his algorithm may be inadequate for some countries with complex shapes (“Italy looks like the biggest country that might be wrong”), scattered geographies (e.g. Norway, because it includes Bouvet Island, a Norwegian dependency located between South Africa and Antarctica, freakishly far from the motherland) or locations on either side of the 180° longitude meridian (New Zealand, United States, Russia).
Also, the Natural Earth database includes small dependencies such as Scarborough Reef (1) as separate entries, which somewhat distorts a per-country ranking. Still, here goes:
Cutting through empty deserts, Egypt’s western and southern borders are completely straight—the Bir Tawil Trapezoid (2) is a notable but statistically insignificant exception. Combined with a fairly straight Mediterranean coastline in the north and its only slightly slanted Red Sea shore in the east, Egypt gets a ‘rectangularity’ score of 0.955 (out of 1), and the first place.
The Vatican’s actual borders are a lot more varied than this boxy rendition—perhaps because the database wasn’t built to reflect the delineation of the world’s smallest state in the greatest possible detail. That may explain why the geopolitical headquarters of the Catholic church manages to rank second in this list.
(For the balance of this interesting article please visit: https://bigthink.com/strange-maps/sierra-leone-is-the-worlds-roundest-country-and-egypt-the-squarest-one/)
The flag of Asgardia, Wikimedia Commons
If you believe that the technology to live in space will be available to you within your lifetime; if you agree with the political philosophy outlined by the ‘World Passport’; if you find yourself in China, India, the U.S., Indonesia, or Brazil with a hankering to take to the stars, then perhaps you should consider becoming a citizen of Asgardia, an organization that hopes to be the first ‘country in space.’
What do you need to do to become a citizen of Asgardia?
Read the Asgardian Constitution. If you agree with it, then you can apply.
Where is Asgardia located?
Stubenring 2/8-9, 1010 Wien, Austria.
How big is Asgardia?
They currently claim around 200,000 citizens — many of them Russian.
Where will Asgardia be eventually?
Asgardia seeks to live in space stations circling the earth and on a moon base, perhaps in the next twenty-five years. There are no current designs for the space stations or moon base at this time.
An artist’s depiction of Asgardia. Flickr user CarlosR38.
That’s it? All I need to become a citizen of Asgardia is to read something and then apply?
Once you join — and they are accepting applications — they ask for your information: where you live, your education, the best way to contact you, and that’s pretty much it.
The Independent has reported that Asgardia might consider an IQ test for prospective citizens, but the potential of citizens having to take an IQ test sets up a decent (and relevant) follow-up question.
Is this all a scam?
There’s not an implausible chance. Outsiders being offered IQ tests and then being told that they either have ‘just the intelligence’ needed for a ‘special project’ or that there’s something wrong with them that only someone else can fix — as Scientology has done for years — sounds like a scam.
The website Stop Fake — a collection of Ukranian journalists seeking to point out Russian propaganda — notes that Asgardia “encourages people to buy shares in its joint stock company, Asgardia AG” and invest in their own cryptocurrency.
There’s also a not implausible chance that this might also be a Russian thing.
(For the balance of this story please see: https://bigthink.com/evan-fleischer/the-first-space-nation-asgardia-is-accepting-applications-for-citizenship-but-is-it-a-hoax/)
Michio Kaku: Let’s not advertise our existence to aliens
Michio Kaku – Theoretical Physicist, Author, and Science Educator Professor of Theoretical Physics, CUNY.
If advanced alien civilizations do exist, theoretical physicist Michio Kaku asks, why would they want anything to do with us? It would be like an academic talking to a squirrel, he suggests, and he has a great point. Hollywood and science fiction novels have conditioned us for years to believe that aliens either want to hang out on our intellectual level and learn from us… or destroy us. If alien life really does have the technology and know-how to make it all the way here, perhaps we should just play it cool and not assume that we are the top species in the universe. Besides, if we play our cards wrong and go all Will Smith in Independence Day on our smart new neighbors, it could be the end of us. Mankind’s biggest folly, Kaku suggests, might just be in its insistence that we are an exceptional species. Michio Kaku’s latest book is the wonderful and enlightening The Future of Humanity: Terraforming Mars, Interstellar Travel, Immortality, and Out Destiny Beyond Earth.
Michio Kaku: We have this mental image that a flying saucer will circle the White House lawn, land on the White House lawn and give us a bounty of all sorts of technological goodies to initiate an age of Aquarius on the planet earth. Personally, I don’t think that’s going to happen. For example, if you’re in the forest do you go out and talk to the squirrels and the deer? Maybe you do for a while, but after a while, you get bored because they don’t talk back to you because they have nothing interesting to tell you because they can’t relate to our values and our ideas.
If you go down to an anthill do you go down to the ants and say I bring you trinkets; I bring you bees; take me to your aunt queen; I give you nuclear energy. So I think for the most part the aliens are probably not going to be interested in us because we’re so arrogant to believe that we have something to offer them. Realize that they could be thousands, maybe millions of years ahead of us in technology and they may have no interest in interacting with us in the same way that we don’t necessarily want to deal with the squirrels and the deer in the forest.
Now some people say that we should not try to make contact with them because they could be potentially dangerous. For the most part, I think they’re going to be peaceful because they’ll be thousands of years ahead of us, but we cannot take the chance. So I personally believe that we should not try to advertise our existence to alien life in outer space because of the fact that we don’t know their intentions.
Then the other question is what happens if they’re evil? Well, I think the question of evil is actually a relative question because the real danger to a deer in the forest is not the hunter with a gigantic rifle; he’s not the main danger to a deer in the forest. The main danger to a deer in the forest is the developer; the guy with blueprints; the guy in a three-piece suit; the guy with a slide rule and calculator; the guy that’s going to pave the forest and perhaps destroy whole ecosystems.
In other words, the aliens don’t have to be evil in order to be dangerous to us, they might not care, they just might not care about us and in the process pave us over. In fact, if you read the novel War of the Worlds the Martians in HG Wells seminal novel were not evil in the sense they wanted to torture us and they wanted to do all sorts of barbaric things to humanity. No, we were just in the way. And so I think that is a potential problem. We could be in the way of a very advanced civilization that simply is not evil but simply views us as we would view squirrels and deer in the forest.
So personally I think that we should not advertise our existence when we go into outer space. For the most part, however, I do think they are going to be peaceful, they’re not going to want to plunder the earth because there are plenty of planets out there that have nobody on them that they can plunder at will without having to worry about restive natives called humanity. And so I think they’re not going to come to visit the earth to plunder us, to do all sorts of mischief. For the most part, I think they’ll just leave us alone.
The TMC Dumont’s 36-inch rims make it look like a rolling pair of spectacles – and a spectacle it certainly is.
Impractical? Sure! Vulgar? Most certainly. Unique? In every sense. This staggering custom motorcycle uses the biggest pair of hubless wheels we’ve ever seen, as well as placing the rider astride a snarling, 300-horsepower Rolls-Royce aircraft engine. Live in fear – of corners, if nothing else.
The TMC Dumont is the work of Brazilian ex-Formula One driver and champion motorcycle custom builder Tarso Marques. Its name is a tip of the hat to Brazilian aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont, who Brazilians believe got an airplane aloft before America’s Wright Brothers.
Hence the aircraft engine – a monstrous Continental flat six from the Rolls-Royce aircraft company that was lifted from a 60’s-era aircraft and polished within an inch of its life.
Three hundred horsepower (224 kW) is a heck of a lot for a motorcycle, and it’s even madder when you look at the bike’s signature feature: gargantuan, hubless 36-inch wheels that sit high enough to block the rider’s view, and connect to underslung swingarms by the flimsiest of connections.
(To see a video of this bizarre contraption on the road visit: https://newatlas.com/tmc-dumont-giant-hubless-rims/55471/)
Photo: KFDM Staff
Canadian-based aviation firm Opener Inc. has unveiled its new BlackFly single-seater aircraft, which it bills as a Personal Aerial Vehicle (PAV) and the world’s first ultralight all-electric fixed-wing Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) aircraft. The fully-amphibious drop-shaped flyer with fore and aft wings sporting eight electric motors has a range of 25 mi (40 km) and a top speed of 62 mph (100 km/h).
(To view the complete article, plus a video, please go to: https://newatlas.com/blackfly-vtol-aircraft/55445/)
The CanguRo personal assistant/smart scooter can follow its user around or provide a motor-driven ride
There’s a reason they call it the “hard problem.”
Consciousness: Where is it? What is it? No one single perspective seems to be able to answer all the questions we have about consciousness. Now Bernardo Kastrup thinks he’s found one. He calls his ontology idealism, and according to idealism, all of us and all we perceive are manifestations of something very much like a cosmic-scale dissociative identity disorder (DID). He suggests there’s an all-encompassing universe-wide consciousness, it has multiple personalities, and we’re them.
Kastrup’s paper is an attempt to devise an explanation for consciousness that leaves no unanswered questions behind as other commonly held perspectives do, at least at our current level of scientific knowledge. (Kastrup is a computer engineer specializing in AI and reconfigurable computing.)
Physicalism and substance dualism
There are a seemingly endless array of ultimately unsatisfying isms thrown at the problem of consciousness. If you’ve got some time, have a look at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Here, though, if only to explain what panpsychism, the basis of Kastrup’s idealism, isn’t, it’ll be helpful to talk very briefly about two of the most popular ontologies to which it’s a response.
Physicalism describes the belief that consciousness is a product of interaction between different types of physical matter. For many, though, physicalism falls into a seemingly uncrossable chasm between strictly physical processes on one hand, and our “phenomenal experience” — the experience of experiencing — on the other. One is chemical, electrical, mechanical, and the other is…something else. Physical processes may be able to explain how we know a roaring fire is hot, but not what warmth feels like to us.
In substance dualism, there’s physical substance and immaterial substance, consciousness, and they’re two separate domains. This seems intuitively true to a lot of people — think body and soul — but if they are fundamentally different things, what means of exchange, or “language,” could they possibly have in common, and how could they interact? How could a physical experience make our consciousness feel a certain way, and how could a purely mental decision cause our body to take action? And where exactly could this happen?
Take one dash of constitutive panpsychism
Kastrup’s system is based on an ontology growing popular with some philosophers, and with some physicists, called constitutive panpsychism. (We’ve explained this concept in greater detail before at Big Think.) It’s basically the idea that everything, all of the tiny subatomic particles that make up the universe’s mass, have consciousness, a sense of what it’s like to have an experience. We have consciousness because it’s everywhere. In this way, it’s all there is.
(For the balance of this article visit: https://bigthink.com/robby-berman/are-we-all-multiple-personalities-of-universal-consciousness/)
Back in 2014, DARPA announced the launch of its Ground X-Vehicle Technology (GXV-T) program, an initiative designed to break through a single paradigm that has been weighing the military down in ground combat. That paradigm is the ever-escalating vendetta between tanks and anti-tank guns.
Artillery designers keep making bigger anti-tank guns, and in response the tank designers have to load them up with more and more armor, to the point where the M1A2 Abrams (the main battle tank of the US Army) now weighs a staggering 72 tons.
That’s nearly twice the weight of a semi-trailer loaded to its maximum legal capacity of 40 tons, and it makes the modern tank a real pain to deal with, from the build, maintenance and deployment, right through to the end use. They’re not what you’d call light-footed or agile, and their sheer bulk can damage or destroy roads or bridges that aren’t up to the task.
DARPA has thus been working on what comes next: smaller, lighter, more nimble vehicles that have tricks other than massive armor up their sleeve when it comes to surviving on the battlefield.
Last month, the GXV-T program demonstrated some of the remarkable technologies it’s been working on. And while they’re far from finished, there are some pretty radical ideas in there. Let’s take a look:
(For the balance of this article visit: https://newatlas.com/darpa-gxv-t-demonstration-military-vehicle-technology/55198/)
Eindhoven, the Netherlands, looks poised to become something of a 3D-printed architecture boom town. Following the construction of a 3D-printed bridge in the city, a total of five rental homes made using the cutting edge tech are now planned too. Read more
by Conner Flynn
I thought that the urinal was the only safe place left to get away from ads being played, but nope. And once you start peeing you are a captive audience as long as that stream is going with these new video urinals from Dutch toilet company Mr.Friendly. Brilliant idea, marketing guys.
This high-tech urinal actually has several nice features like a waterless/flushless function and an anti-bacterial surface, but the big new upgrade is the built-in display with an automatic sensor that’ll play advertisements while you pee.
I know that online they use ads based on your browsing and buying habits, so I can only guess that this thing chooses the ads based on peeing technique? I hope it doesn’t have any other sensors that give it info about your junk because it could be pretty embarrassing if several guys are peeing and watching ads, and one guy gets the erectile dysfunction ad.
Also, we probably shouldn’t be distracted in the bathroom unless you want pee everywhere. Let’s just focus on the task at hand and leave the urinal an ad-free zone, guys. And how many people are going to be pissed off at the ads so that they piss on them for real? People are nasty after all. This is a bad idea.
(Article source: https://technabob.com/blog/2018/04/20/video-ad-bathroom-urinal/)
Over 15 years ago, a strange counter-intuitive bit of data was identified in patients undergoing hemodialysis for chronic kidney disease. Across several studies, overweight or mildly obese patients were displaying greater survival rates than those with healthy weights. The phenomenon was dubbed the “obesity paradox” and for well over a decade scientists have debated what could be causing it. Several new studies presented recently at the European Congress on Obesity have added further weight to the hypothesis of an obesity paradox, finding several strange correlations between obesity and survival rates across a variety of conditions.
The first study looked generally at patients admitted to hospital for an infectious disease. Tracking more that 18,000 patients admitted to hospitals in Denmark over a four-year period, the study found that within 90 days of discharge those patients of a normal weight displayed a significantly higher chance of dying when compared to both overweight and obese patients.
Two more studies presented at the conference examined mortality rates from patients admitted to hospitals for pneumonia and sepsis. Both studies examined large banks of data tracking admissions from over 1,000 US hospitals.
The pneumonia study, which included data from 1,690,760 hospitalizations, found that obese and overweight patients were between 20 and 30 percent less likely to die from the condition than those of normal weight. The sepsis study impressively gathered data from 3.7 million hospital admissions and found obese and overweight patients were around 20 percent more likely to survive following admission than patients of normal weight.
(For more information visit: https://newatlas.com/obesity-paradox-overweight-survival-sepsis-pnemonia/)
I’m going through a divorce. It’s amicable, mature, and adult. We just don’t work together as a couple anymore, but we’ll try and remain friends. As a writer, I work from home. I’m alone all day and now, no one is coming home at night. As a result, I’m taking great pains to be social, to go out, to see friends and family, to make phone calls, and to avoid social isolation. There’s no shame in admitting as much, although our rugged individualist society may look down on opening up about such things, especially as a straight male. Aren’t we supposed to be stoic mavericks, able to set out on our own, without anyone’s help at all? Turns out, not so much.
A young man sits by himself in a stadium. Image credit: Getty Images.
In fact, staying connected is the healthiest thing to do, and not just psychologically. According to a 2014 University of Chicago study, loneliness can have a significant negative impact on physical health. It can increase the rate of atherosclerosis—the hardening of the arteries, increase the risk of high blood pressure and stroke, and decrease retention, which can even hurt learning and memory. What’s more, the lonely often make worse life choices and are more prone to substance abuse.
Some research suggests loneliness is worse for you than smoking or obesity. It can even increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Seniors are often the focus. Those who face social isolation actually see a 14% increased risk of premature death.
(To continue with this article visit: bigthink.com/philip-perry/theres-a-loneliness-epidemic-in-the-us-and-its-getting-worse/)
Ireland gives us whiskey, Bitcoin gives us… hmm.
In addition to being insufferable, Bitcoin is also absolutely terrible for the environment. According to a letter published today in the energy journal Joule by financial economist and blockchain specialist Alex de Vries, the Bitcoin network is consuming roughly 2.55 gigawatts of energy annually, at the absolute minimum. To put that in context, that’s nearly the same amount of energy consumed by the entirety of Ireland. That’s just the conservative current estimate; De Vries predicts that by December, the Bitcoin network could be using almost triple that.
Bitcoins cost energy to “mine,” because mining is just a computer running calculations; the longer Bitcoin is around, the more energy it takes to mine each subsequent unit (it takes four times as much energy to mine a single Bitcoin now as it did when the currency launched in 2009). There is a finite amount of Bitcoin, and the most recent projections show it will take about another 120 years to mine all 21 million Bitcoins. There is also, theoretically, a tipping point somewhere in there where the amount of energy it takes to mine a piece of Bitcoin is more valuable than the Bitcoin itself, though it all depends on the market value. But Bitcoin transactions, not just mining, take energy (one transaction could currently power a home for a week), so the more widely used it is, the more carbon we are pumping into the atmosphere.
There’s been a considerable amount of debate over the last couple of years surrounding the extent of the energy impact of Bitcoin (for instance, is it pretty bad, or really really bad?), not least because energy use in most parts of the world contributes carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, which contributes to climate change. But in the wake of Bitcoin’s wild valuation ride throughout most of 2017 up to nearly $20,000 per coin, cryptocurrency mining doesn’t seem likely to slow down anytime soon. Researchers need concrete answers before it becomes far too late enact institutional restrictions and regulations on the practice, writes De Vries.
De Vries’ figure doesn’t even include the energy expenditures of other popular cryptocurrencies like Ethereum and Ripple. The altcoin market’s potential for comparably sky-high energy consumption levels is unfortunately all too serious. According to the Digiconomist’s Ethereum Energy Consumption Index (which is technically still in beta), Ethereum production already makes up .09 percent of the world’s total energy consumption. While this may seem like a relatively small amount, it’s not. It’s already more than the total yearly energy consumption of countries like Iceland, Jordan, and Cuba. And given that Ethereum is only just getting started (ugh), this figure will likely only rise.
Energy use of Bitcoin will likely stop growing so fast and even decline in the near future; Grist estimated that at current trends Bitcoin would cost as much energy as the whole world uses now in only two years, an incredibly unlikely situation. It may also be possible to improve mining algorithms so they don’t use as much energy. Still, when the energy use is so high and interest isn’t waning, De Vries is trying to draw attention to the currency’s impact.
“We’ve seen a lot of back-of-the-envelope calculations, but we need more scientific discussion on where this network is headed,” said de Vries in a press release. “Right now, the information available is pretty poor quality overall, so I’m hoping that people will use this paper as a foundation for more research.”
(Article source, and for more information, see: https://theoutline.com/post/4561/bitcoin-is-consuming-as-much-energy-as-the-country-of-ireland?zd=1&zi=zh754dcw)
One bicycle burst
In the momentary dash of a flat-out sprint, the average cyclist can eke out a single horsepower. Pro pedalers can generate twice that. Horses, however, have humans beat on staying power; even Tour de France elites can’t sustain more than a few tenths of a horsepower over the full length of a race.
One coffee maker
In electrical work, we measure power in watts, a unit named for dear James. A lone watt is tiny—only enough to power an LED night light. That’s why we almost always talk in terms of kilowatts, especially on electric bills. Still, 1 horsepower’s worth, or 746 watts, is enough to power a standard drip coffee maker.
One enormous dead lift
A foot-pound is the work it takes to lift 1 pound a distance of 1 foot. To exert 33,000 of those all in the space of an extremely sweaty minute, the equivalent of 1 horsepower, an eager equine could drag 10,000 pounds up 3.3 feet, 3.3 pounds up 10,000 feet, or (more realistically) 330 pounds up 100 feet.
One pasta party
Pull power and heat are two sides of the same coin (a coin made of energy). To convert, you’ll have to work with British thermal units. One Btu provides roughly a kitchen match’s worth of warmth (or, more specifically, one penny match’s worth). A single equine could pound out 2,545 Btu per hour, enough to boil 2.2 gallons of room-temp water (assuming a tight lid and no heat loss in a perfect, imaginary world), which would cook 14 servings of pasta.
work (n.) The amount of force exerted over a distance. Units include foot-pound, kilowatt-hour, and BTU.
en.er.gy (n.) The capacity to do work. has multiple forms, including mechanical, thermal, and electrical.
pow.er (n.) The rate of work, calculated as the amount of work done divided by the time it took to do it.
This article was originally published in the January/February 2018 Power issue of Popular Science.
Note: this article has been updated to add statements and rearrange clauses so as to be more clear. Thank you to the Redditors who checked our work, though we stand by our inefficient method of cooking pasta.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) wants public input on a “scoping study” intended to justify calling some nuclear waste “very low-level waste” or VLLW. We call it “Very Large Loophole Waste.”
Radioactive gasses seep into concrete lodging and decay becoming other radioactive elements. Metal parts in the reactor are bombarded with neutrons during nuclear power production process and become activated radioactive metal.
As reactors and other processing factories that are a part of the nuclear fuel chain shut down, the buildings and their parts, the soil, the uniforms employees wore, the tools used to service reactors and other machinery, etc., all have become contaminated with radioactivity, and must be isolated from the environment and the public.
Instead of paying to manage these contaminated items as the nuclear waste they are, the Department of Energy (DOE) and nuclear industry are attempting to reclassify the waste as “Very Low-Level” and allow it to be dumped in landfills and/or incinerators, or recycled with consumer goods.
Huge amounts of dangerous but hard-to-detect nuclear wastes would no longer be regulated as radioactive and would have “alternative methods of disposal,” not at licensed radioactive waste sites.
The term “low-level” radioactive waste is already deceptive and can mean very high risk to humans and other life. Help protect us, our communities, and future generations!
Thanks for all you do, Diane D’Arrigo, Radioactive Waste Project Director
Nuclear Information and Resource Service, 6930 Carroll Ave, Ste. 340, Takoma Park, MD 20912,(301) 270-6477, www.NIRS.org
What’s in a name? There are lots of reason to choose one name or another when naming a child — family tradition, or as a tribute to a beloved relative or friend — but does a name really matter? Research suggests, yes, maybe it does, when it comes to the level of success you’ll achieve in your career and love life, and even where you choose to live. The reasons for this remain in the realm of conjecture, but research has revealed some surprising — and some not so surprising — correlations.
The difference from A to Z
You may not think this matters, but the alphabetical position of the first letter of your name may have two effects:
- A 2007 study found that people whose names start with a letter early in the alphabet are more likely to be admitted to schools, even when those late in the alphabet have higher scores. Obviously, this foot in the door can ripple through adult life since it may affect a person’s career choice. Are admissions staff tired and cranky by the time they get to poor Xander?
- A 2013 study suggests that if you have a name that comes later in the alphabet, you’re more likely to be an impulse shopper. The study’s authors theorize that this is a product of a lifetime of waiting for your name to be called, leading to impatience.
Familiarity helps in work and love
- Marquette University found that people with common names are more likely to be hired for a job than others.
- This is even truer if your name is super-easy to pronounce, as an NYU study found, probably because we tend to like what’s easy.
- According to one 2008 study, you’re even actually statistically more likely to have a career at a company whose initials mirror your own. Benicio del Toro is welcome any time at Big Think.
- Familiarity even seems to affect where we live. We tend to gravitate to places named like us. Did you know St. Louis has an unusually higher percentage of residents named Louis? How about Philadelphia, packed with Philips? Or Jacksonville’s Jacks or Virginia Beach’s Virginias?
- In school, a boy with a girl’s name is more likely to be suspended according to one 2007 study.
- In romance, a surprisingly high number of people connect with others whose names start with the same letter as theirs do. Xander and Xavier sitting in a tree…
- On the other hand, a 2009 study found that if your name is difficult to say, you may have more trouble dating because hard-to-say names are associated with higher risk. Unless of course, you’re hitting on a thrill-seeker.
- According to psychologist Frank McAndrew, unfamiliar names are even penalized in a romantic context.
Unless you’re dating online and have one of these names
According to The Grade, these are the “hottest” names of the moment:
- Jeff (Hey, that’s double-dipping!)
The image your name conjures up
- Unusual names can be viewed as a sign of juvenile delinquency, and make one less likely to be asked in for a job interview, according to a 2009 study.
- Sad but true, if your name sounds “white,” you’re more likely to get hired thanks to subliminal or overt racial bias. A study by the American Economic Association documented this pernicious type of labor market discrimination.
- The European Journal of Social Psychology found that use of a middle initial makes you seem smarter and more competent. More initial? More better.
Names in the management class
- If your name sounds worthy, you’re more likely to rise to the top of the company. A study of German names found that people whose last names were “Kaiser” (“emperor”) or “König” (“king”) were more likely to be bosses than those named “Koch” (“cook”) or “Bauer” (“farmer”).
- For some reason, says LinkedIn, men in upper management are more likely to have short names. Maybe it has something with powerful people wanting less intimidating monikers?
- On the other hand, LinkedIn notes, powerful women are more likely to use their full names, likely to present a business-like impression.
- According to The Atlantic, women with gender-neutral-sounding names are more likely to be promoted in some industries.
That’s what’s in a name. Maybe.
Some of these studies are more convincing than others, and few get into the reasons behind these sometimes-odd correlations. If you’ve got an apparently problematic name according to it all, don’t worry. People do change them. (Joseph’s “Stalin,” which means “steel,” is clearly more imposing than his original “Dzhugashvili.”) And since correlation doesn’t equal causality, we’d better keep studying this.
Can you raed this?
Olny 55 plepoe out of 100 can.
I cdnuolt blveiee that I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd what I was rdanieg. The ph aonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno’t mtaetr in what oerdr the ltteres in a word are, the olny iproamtnt tihng is that the frsit and last ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can still raed it whotuit a pboerlm. This is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the word as a wlohe. Azanmig huh? Yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt! If you can raed this forwrad it.
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